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2 Minute Speech on Covid-19 (CoronaVirus) for Students

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The year, 2019, saw the discovery of a previously unknown coronavirus illness, Covid-19 . The Coronavirus has affected the way we go about our everyday lives. This pandemic has devastated millions of people, either unwell or passed away due to the sickness. The most common symptoms of this viral illness include a high temperature, a cough, bone pain, and difficulties with the respiratory system. In addition to these symptoms, patients infected with the coronavirus may also feel weariness, a sore throat, muscular discomfort, and a loss of taste or smell.

2 Minute Speech on Covid-19 (CoronaVirus) for Students

10 Lines Speech on Covid-19 for Students

The Coronavirus is a member of a family of viruses that may infect their hosts exceptionally quickly.

Humans created the Coronavirus in the city of Wuhan in China, where it first appeared.

The first confirmed case of the Coronavirus was found in India in January in the year 2020.

Protecting ourselves against the coronavirus is essential by covering our mouths and noses when we cough or sneeze to prevent the infection from spreading.

We must constantly wash our hands with antibacterial soap and face masks to protect ourselves.

To ensure our safety, the government has ordered the whole nation's closure to halt the virus's spread.

The Coronavirus forced all our classes to be taken online, as schools and institutions were shut down.

Due to the coronavirus, everyone was instructed to stay indoors throughout the lockdown.

During this period, I spent a lot of time playing games with family members.

Even though the cases of COVID-19 are a lot less now, we should still take precautions.

Short 2-Minute Speech on Covid 19 for Students

The coronavirus, also known as Covid - 19 , causes a severe illness. Those who are exposed to it become sick in their lungs. A brand-new virus is having a devastating effect throughout the globe. It's being passed from person to person via social interaction.

The first instance of Covid - 19 was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China . The World Health Organization proclaimed the covid - 19 pandemic in March 2020. It has now reached every country in the globe. Droplets produced by an infected person's cough or sneeze might infect those nearby.

The severity of Covid-19 symptoms varies widely. Symptoms aren't always present. The typical symptoms are high temperatures, a dry cough, and difficulty breathing. Covid - 19 individuals also exhibit other symptoms such as weakness, a sore throat, muscular soreness, and a diminished sense of smell and taste.

Vaccination has been produced by many countries but the effectiveness of them is different for every individual. The only treatment then is to avoid contracting in the first place. We can accomplish that by following these protocols—

Put on a mask to hide your face. Use soap and hand sanitiser often to keep germs at bay.

Keep a distance of 5 to 6 feet at all times.

Never put your fingers in your mouth or nose.

Long 2-Minute Speech on Covid 19 for Students

As students, it's important for us to understand the gravity of the situation regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and the impact it has on our communities and the world at large. In this speech, I will discuss the real-world examples of the effects of the pandemic and its impact on various aspects of our lives.

Impact on Economy | The Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the global economy. We have seen how businesses have been forced to close their doors, leading to widespread job loss and economic hardship. Many individuals and families have been struggling to make ends meet, and this has led to a rise in poverty and inequality.

Impact on Healthcare Systems | The pandemic has also put a strain on healthcare systems around the world. Hospitals have been overwhelmed with patients, and healthcare workers have been stretched to their limits. This has highlighted the importance of investing in healthcare systems and ensuring that they are prepared for future crises.

Impact on Education | The pandemic has also affected the education system, with schools and universities being closed around the world. This has led to a shift towards online learning and the use of technology to continue education remotely. However, it has also highlighted the digital divide, with many students from low-income backgrounds facing difficulties in accessing online learning.

Impact on Mental Health | The pandemic has not only affected our physical health but also our mental health. We have seen how the isolation and uncertainty caused by the pandemic have led to an increase in stress, anxiety, and depression. It's important that we take care of our mental health and support each other during this difficult time.

Real-life Story of a Student

John is a high school student who was determined to succeed despite the struggles brought on by the Covid-19 pandemic.

John's school closed down in the early days of the pandemic, and he quickly found himself struggling to adjust to online learning. Without the structure and support of in-person classes, John found it difficult to stay focused and motivated. He also faced challenges at home, as his parents were both essential workers and were often not available to help him with his schoolwork.

Despite these struggles, John refused to let the pandemic defeat him. He made a schedule for himself, to stay on top of his assignments and set goals for himself. He also reached out to his teachers for additional support, and they were more than happy to help.

John also found ways to stay connected with his classmates and friends, even though they were physically apart. They formed a study group and would meet regularly over Zoom to discuss their assignments and provide each other with support.

Thanks to his hard work and determination, John was able to maintain good grades and even improved in some subjects. He graduated high school on time, and was even accepted into his first-choice college.

John's story is a testament to the resilience and determination of students everywhere. Despite the challenges brought on by the pandemic, he was able to succeed and achieve his goals. He shows us that with hard work, determination, and support, we can overcome even the toughest of obstacles.

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How to avoid COVID-19

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If you develop symptoms such as severe shortness of breath or chest pain, call triple zero (000) immediately. Tell the call handler and the paramedics on arrival if you have COVID-19.

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How to avoid catching COVID-19 including getting vaccinated, wearing masks and physical distancing. Also available in 15 languages .

Good hygiene

Practising good hygiene is one of the best ways to protect yourself from COVID-19. It is essential to keep your hands clean — especially outside your home — and to cover your cough or sneeze.

Good hygiene includes:

Wearing a mask

Wearing a face mask mask can help stop droplets from spreading when people talk, cough and sneeze, which reduces the risk of spreading COVID-19.

Learn more about how to wear a mask and which masks are best .

Getting vaccinated

COVID-19 vaccination stops people from becoming very sick if they catch COVID-19.

Vaccines train your immune system to quickly recognise and get rid of the bacteria or viruses that can cause serious illnesses. Vaccines that protect us against COVID-19 are designed to generate an immune response specific to the COVID-19 coronavirus.

Learn more about COVID-19 vaccines .

Physical distancing is a term used to describe how you should keep your distance from people during the COVID-19 pandemic .

Physical distancing helps reduce the risk of a virus being transmitted and includes:

It's important that people stay in touch and continue to be social with their family and friends for their own mental health and wellbeing . Phone calls, video calls and social media can help you stay connected with loved ones.

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How to Write About Coronavirus in a College Essay

Students can share how they navigated life during the coronavirus pandemic in a full-length essay or an optional supplement.

Writing About COVID-19 in College Essays

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Experts say students should be honest and not limit themselves to merely their experiences with the pandemic. (Getty Images)

The global impact of COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, means colleges and prospective students alike are in for an admissions cycle like no other. Both face unprecedented challenges and questions as they grapple with their respective futures amid the ongoing fallout of the pandemic.

Colleges must examine applicants without the aid of standardized test scores for many – a factor that prompted many schools to go test-optional for now . Even grades, a significant component of a college application, may be hard to interpret with some high schools adopting pass-fail classes last spring due to the pandemic. Major college admissions factors are suddenly skewed.

"I can't help but think other (admissions) factors are going to matter more," says Ethan Sawyer, founder of the College Essay Guy, a website that offers free and paid essay-writing resources.

College essays and letters of recommendation , Sawyer says, are likely to carry more weight than ever in this admissions cycle. And many essays will likely focus on how the pandemic shaped students' lives throughout an often tumultuous 2020.

But before writing a college essay focused on the coronavirus, students should explore whether it's the best topic for them.

Writing About COVID-19 for a College Application

Much of daily life has been colored by the coronavirus. Virtual learning is the norm at many colleges and high schools, many extracurriculars have vanished and social lives have stalled for students complying with measures to stop the spread of COVID-19.

"For some young people, the pandemic took away what they envisioned as their senior year," says Robert Alexander, dean of admissions, financial aid and enrollment management at the University of Rochester in New York. "Maybe that's a spot on a varsity athletic team or the lead role in the fall play. And it's OK for them to mourn what should have been and what they feel like they lost, but more important is how are they making the most of the opportunities they do have?"

That question, Alexander says, is what colleges want answered if students choose to address COVID-19 in their college essay.

But the question of whether a student should write about the coronavirus is tricky. The answer depends largely on the student.

"In general, I don't think students should write about COVID-19 in their main personal statement for their application," Robin Miller, master college admissions counselor at IvyWise, a college counseling company, wrote in an email.

"Certainly, there may be exceptions to this based on a student's individual experience, but since the personal essay is the main place in the application where the student can really allow their voice to be heard and share insight into who they are as an individual, there are likely many other topics they can choose to write about that are more distinctive and unique than COVID-19," Miller says.

Opinions among admissions experts vary on whether to write about the likely popular topic of the pandemic.

"If your essay communicates something positive, unique, and compelling about you in an interesting and eloquent way, go for it," Carolyn Pippen, principal college admissions counselor at IvyWise, wrote in an email. She adds that students shouldn't be dissuaded from writing about a topic merely because it's common, noting that "topics are bound to repeat, no matter how hard we try to avoid it."

Above all, she urges honesty.

"If your experience within the context of the pandemic has been truly unique, then write about that experience, and the standing out will take care of itself," Pippen says. "If your experience has been generally the same as most other students in your context, then trying to find a unique angle can easily cross the line into exploiting a tragedy, or at least appearing as though you have."

But focusing entirely on the pandemic can limit a student to a single story and narrow who they are in an application, Sawyer says. "There are so many wonderful possibilities for what you can say about yourself outside of your experience within the pandemic."

He notes that passions, strengths, career interests and personal identity are among the multitude of essay topic options available to applicants and encourages them to probe their values to help determine the topic that matters most to them – and write about it.

That doesn't mean the pandemic experience has to be ignored if applicants feel the need to write about it.

Writing About Coronavirus in Main and Supplemental Essays

Students can choose to write a full-length college essay on the coronavirus or summarize their experience in a shorter form.

To help students explain how the pandemic affected them, The Common App has added an optional section to address this topic. Applicants have 250 words to describe their pandemic experience and the personal and academic impact of COVID-19.

"That's not a trick question, and there's no right or wrong answer," Alexander says. Colleges want to know, he adds, how students navigated the pandemic, how they prioritized their time, what responsibilities they took on and what they learned along the way.

If students can distill all of the above information into 250 words, there's likely no need to write about it in a full-length college essay, experts say. And applicants whose lives were not heavily altered by the pandemic may even choose to skip the optional COVID-19 question.

"This space is best used to discuss hardship and/or significant challenges that the student and/or the student's family experienced as a result of COVID-19 and how they have responded to those difficulties," Miller notes. Using the section to acknowledge a lack of impact, she adds, "could be perceived as trite and lacking insight, despite the good intentions of the applicant."

To guard against this lack of awareness, Sawyer encourages students to tap someone they trust to review their writing , whether it's the 250-word Common App response or the full-length essay.

Experts tend to agree that the short-form approach to this as an essay topic works better, but there are exceptions. And if a student does have a coronavirus story that he or she feels must be told, Alexander encourages the writer to be authentic in the essay.

"My advice for an essay about COVID-19 is the same as my advice about an essay for any topic – and that is, don't write what you think we want to read or hear," Alexander says. "Write what really changed you and that story that now is yours and yours alone to tell."

Sawyer urges students to ask themselves, "What's the sentence that only I can write?" He also encourages students to remember that the pandemic is only a chapter of their lives and not the whole book.

Miller, who cautions against writing a full-length essay on the coronavirus, says that if students choose to do so they should have a conversation with their high school counselor about whether that's the right move. And if students choose to proceed with COVID-19 as a topic, she says they need to be clear, detailed and insightful about what they learned and how they adapted along the way.

"Approaching the essay in this manner will provide important balance while demonstrating personal growth and vulnerability," Miller says.

Pippen encourages students to remember that they are in an unprecedented time for college admissions.

"It is important to keep in mind with all of these (admission) factors that no colleges have ever had to consider them this way in the selection process, if at all," Pippen says. "They have had very little time to calibrate their evaluations of different application components within their offices, let alone across institutions. This means that colleges will all be handling the admissions process a little bit differently, and their approaches may even evolve over the course of the admissions cycle."

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Coronavirus – here’s the public health advice on how to protect yourself

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What do the experts say on protecting yourself effectively? Image:  REUTERS/Aly Song

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Marty Nemko Ph.D.

The Coronavirus Speech I’d Give

Realistic reasons for hope..

Posted  March 21, 2020 | Reviewed by Jessica Schrader

Source: WallpaperFlare/Public Domain

Updated: Apr. 24, 2020

The media’s core message on the coronavirus is that even if we behave, coronavirus will change life as we know it for years to come: massive job loss, disease, and yes, death, rivaling the Spanish Flu, which killed 50 to 100 million people.

Perhaps a perspective from someone with little to gain from sensationalism nor from political blaming might replace some of the fear with realistic hope.

There are at least three reasons for realistic hope that the coronavirus problem will be satisfactorily addressed than is feared:

1. A simpler, faster test is here: Abbott Laboratories have developed a COVID-19 test that produces the results in five minutes, onsite, and the FDA has just authorized the first at-home swab test.

2. As of April 6, there were more than 200 coronavirus vaccines and treatments in development. It would seem that with some of the world's greatest minds working tirelessly, one will be developed, again, sooner than later. The WHO says that an effective treatment is likely just weeks or months away.

3. Social distancing works and in the U.S. compliance has risen to over 90 percent as of April 15, and since then, subjectively, I've noted ever greater compliance.

So live your life. Sure, practice social distancing, wear a mask in stores, and wash your hands often, but also take advantage of the slowed economy to do things you had wished you had time to do: Speak with friends, do a hobby, do volunteer work by phone or on the internet. Upgrade your skills and networking connections so when the economy and job market improves, you'll be ready. Love more.

Society will survive the coronavirus pandemic, not just because of improved preparedness for an epidemic but because we’ll live with a greater sense of perspective and appreciation of life’s small pleasures: from that first bite of food to the beauty of your loved ones to more present conversations with friends and family. Don’t let coronavirus deprive you of life's wonders. Live.

For some silver linings in the coronavirus situation, you might want to read my previous post, " My Shelter Diary ," including the excellent comment by "Your Reader in Pennsylvania."

I read this aloud on YouTube.

Marty Nemko Ph.D.

Marty Nemko, Ph.D ., is a career and personal coach based in Oakland, California, and the author of 10 books.

write a short informative speech on how to avoid covid 19

write a short informative speech on how to avoid covid 19

May 2023 magazine cover

Hope is double-edged, false hope can set you on a collision course with despair. Know when your hopes are well-founded and how to turn your deep desires into results.

write a short informative speech on how to avoid covid 19

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Examining persuasive message type to encourage staying at home during the COVID-19 pandemic and social lockdown: A randomized controlled study in Japan

Behavioral change is the only prevention against the COVID-19 pandemic until vaccines become available. This is the first study to examine the most persuasive message type in terms of narrator difference in encouraging people to stay at home during the COVID-19 pandemic and social lockdown.

Participants (n = 1,980) were randomly assigned to five intervention messages (from a governor, a public health expert, a physician, a patient, and a resident of an outbreak area) and a control message. Intention to stay at home before and after reading messages was assessed. A one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s or Games–Howell test was conducted.

Compared with other messages, the message from a physician significantly increased participants’ intention to stay at home in areas with high numbers of people infected (versus a governor, p  = .002; an expert, p  = .023; a resident, p  = .004).

The message from a physician―which conveyed the crisis of overwhelmed hospitals and consequent risk of people being unable to receive treatment―increased the intent to stay at home the most.

Practice implications

Health professionals and media operatives may be able to encourage people to stay at home by disseminating the physicians’ messages through media and the internet.

1. Introduction

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as the largest global pandemic ever experienced [ 1 ]. Experts have proposed that social lockdown will lead to improvements such as controlling the increase in the number of infected individuals and preventing a huge burden on the healthcare system [ [2] , [3] , [4] ]. Governments of many countries across the world have declared local and national social lockdown [ 4 , 5 ]. In April 2020, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency, which allows prefectural governors to request residents to refrain from unnecessary and nonurgent outings from home [ 6 ]. However, despite such governor declarations, people in various countries have resisted and disregarded calls to stay at home [ [7] , [8] , [9] ]. Because social lockdown is the only existing weapon for prevention of the pandemic until vaccines becomes available to treat COVID-19, behavioral change in individuals regarding staying at home is crucial [ 3 , 4 ]. Many news articles about COVID-19 are published daily by the mass media and over the internet. Such articles convey messages from governors, public health experts, physicians, COVID-19 patients, and residents of outbreak areas, encouraging people to stay at home. This is the first study to examine which narrator’s message is most persuasive in encouraging people to do so during the COVID-19 pandemic and social lockdown.

2.1. Participants and design

Participants were recruited from people registered in a survey company database in Japan. The eligibility criterion was men and women aged 18–69 years. Exclusion criteria were individuals who answered screening questions by stating: that they cannot go out because of illness or disability; that they have been diagnosed with a mental illness; or/and that they or their family members have been infected with COVID-19. A total of 1,980 participants completed the survey from May 9–11, 2020, when the state of emergency covered all prefectures in Japan. Participants were included according to the population composition ratio in Japan nationwide by gender, age, and residential area. Participants were randomly assigned either to a group that received an intervention message (i.e., from a governor, a public health expert, a physician, a patient, and a resident of the outbreak area) or to one that received a control message. The study was registered as a University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (number: UMIN000040286) on May 1, 2020. The methods of the present study adhered to CONSORT guidelines. The protocol was approved by the ethical review committee at the Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo (number: 2020032NI). All participants gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

2.2. Intervention and control messages

We searched news articles about COVID-19 using Yahoo! JAPAN News ( ), the largest Japanese news portal site. We also searched videos posted by residents of outbreak areas such as New York using YouTube ( ). By referring to these articles and videos, we created five intervention messages from a governor, a public health expert, a physician, a patient, and a resident of an outbreak area. The content of each message encouraged readers to stay at home. We included threat and coping messages in each intervention message based on protection motivation theory (PMT) [ 10 , 11 ]. Appendix A shows the five intervention messages used in this study, translated into English for this report. For a control message we obtained textual information about bruxism from the website of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare ( ).

2.3. Measures

The primary outcome was intention to stay at home. The secondary outcomes were PMT constructs (i.e., perceived severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy). Participants responded to two or three questions for each measure (see Appendix B ). These measures were adapted and modified from previous studies [ [12] , [13] , [14] , [15] ]. All primary and secondary outcomes were measured before and after the participants read intervention or control messages, and mean scores were calculated. Higher scores indicated greater intention and perception. All participants were asked for their sociodemographic information before they read intervention or control messages.

2.4. Sample size

Based on the effect size in a previous randomized controlled study [ 16 ], we estimated a small effect size (Cohen’s d  = .20) in the current study. We conducted a power analysis at an alpha error rate of .05 (two-tailed) and a beta error rate of .20. The power analysis indicated that 330 participants were required in each of the intervention and control groups.

2.5. Statistical analysis

A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted with the absolute change in mean values for each measure before and after intervention as the dependent variable and the group assignment as the independent variable. For multiple comparisons, Tukey’s test was conducted on significant main effects where appropriate. The Games–Howell test was performed when the assumption of homogeneity of variances was not satisfied. Additionally, we conducted subgroup analyses including only participants who lived in 13 “specified warning prefectures,” where the number of infected individuals showed a marked increase [ 17 ]. A p value of <.05 was considered significant in all statistical tests. All statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA).

Table 1 shows the participants’ characteristics. Table 2 , Table 3 present a comparison among the five intervention groups using one-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons when including all prefectures and only participants who lived in the specified warning prefectures, respectively. More significant differences between intervention messages were found in the specified warning prefectures compared with all prefectures. In Table 3 , the Games–Howell test indicates that the message from a physician increased participants’ intention to stay at home significantly more than other narrators’ messages (versus a governor, p  = .002; an expert, p  = .023; a resident, p  = .004). Multiple comparisons demonstrated that the message from a physician increased participants’ perceived severity (versus a governor, p  = .015), response efficacy (versus a resident, p  = .014), and self-efficacy (versus a governor, p  = .022; a patient, p  = .009) significantly more than other narrators’ messages.

Participants’ sociodemographic information.

Comparison of amount of change before and after intervention among groups when including all prefectures (N = 1,980).

Comparison of amount of change before and after intervention among groups when including only the “specified warning prefectures” (N = 1,274).

4. Discussion and conclusion

4.1. discussion.

As Appendix A shows, the message from a physician specifically communicated the critical situation of hospitals being overwhelmed and the consequent risk of people being unable to receive treatment. Depiction of the crisis of overwhelmed hospitals may have evoked heightened sensation that elicited sensory, affective, and arousal responses in recipients. Social lockdown presumably evoked psychological reactance in many individuals [ 18 ]. Psychological reactance is considered one of the factors that impedes individuals’ staying at home during a pandemic [ 18 ]. Studies of psychological reactance have indicated that heightened sensation is the feature of a message that reduces psychological reactance [ 19 , 20 ]. Additionally, in Japan recommendations by physicians have a strong influence on individuals’ decision making owing to the remnants of paternalism in the patient–physician relationship [ 21 ]. These may constitute the reasons for the message from a physician generating the greatest impact on recipients’ protection motivation.

Public health professionals, governors, media professionals, and other influencers should use messages from physicians and disseminate relevant articles through the media and social networking services to encourage people to stay at home. It is important that health professionals and media have a network and collaborate with one another [ 22 ]. To build relationships and provide reliable resources, health professionals are expected to hold press conferences and study meetings with journalists. Through such networking, journalists can acquire accurate information in dealing with the pandemic, such as using messages from physicians to encourage people to stay at home. Consequently, journalists should disseminate such messages. It is also important that governments, municipalities, medical associations, and other public institutions convey messages from physicians and that the media effectively spread those messages. Owing to the advances of Web 2.0 [ 23 ], health professionals’ grassroots communication with journalists and citizens via social media may provide opportunities for many people to access persuasive messages from physicians.

4.1.1. Limitations

First, the content of the intervention messages in this study may not represent voices of all governors, public health experts, physicians, patients, and residents of outbreak areas. Second, it is not clear from this study which sentences in the intervention message made the most impact on recipients and why. Third, this study assessed intention rather than actual behavior. Finally, it is unclear as to what extent the present findings are generalizable to populations other than the Japanese participants in this study.

4.2. Conclusion

In areas with high numbers of infected people, the message from a physician, which conveyed the crisis of hospitals being overwhelmed and the consequent risk of people being unable to receive treatment, increased the intention to stay at home to a greater extent than other messages from a governor, a public health expert, a patient with COVID-19, and a resident of an outbreak area.

4.3. Practice implications

Governors, health professionals, and media professionals may be able to encourage people to stay at home by disseminating the physicians’ messages through media such as television and newspapers as well as social networking services on the internet.

This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (grant number 19K10615).

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Tsuyoshi Okuhara: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Funding acquisition. Hiroko Okada: Methodology, Investigation, Writing - review & editing. Takahiro Kiuchi: Supervision, Writing - review & editing.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


We thank Hugh McGonigle, from Edanz Group ( ), for editing a draft of the manuscript.

Appendix A. 

Intervention: the message from a governor.

The following is a message from the governor of your local area.

Please avoid leaving your house as much as possible.

Staying at home can save lives and prevent the spread of infection.

Intervention: The message from an expert

The following is a message from an infectious disease control expert.

Intervention: The message from a physician

The following is a message from an emergency medical care doctor.

Intervention: The message from a patient

The following is a message from a patient who is infected with the novel coronavirus.

Intervention: The message from a resident

The following is a message from an individual who lives in an area where an outbreak of novel coronavirus has occurred.

A control message

According to the traditional definition, grinding one’s teeth is when somebody makes a sound by strongly grinding the teeth together, usually unconsciously or while asleep. Nowadays, it is often referred to as ‘teeth grinding,’ a term which also covers various actions that we do while awake.

Whether you are sleeping or awake, the non-functional biting habit of grinding one’s teeth dynamically or statically, or clenching one’s teeth, can also be referred to as bruxism (sleep bruxism if it occurs at night). Bruxism can be categorized into the movements of: sliding the upper and lower teeth together like mortar and pestle (grinding); firmly and statically engaging the upper and lower teeth (clenching); and dynamically bringing the upper and lower teeth together with a tap (tapping).

Bruxism is difficult to diagnose, as it often has no noticeable symptoms. Stress and dentition are thought to be causes of bruxism, but it is currently unclear and future research is anticipated.

Splint therapy, which involves the use of a mouthpiece as an artificial plastic covering on one’s teeth, and cognitive behavioral therapy are being researched as treatments for bruxism.

Appendix B. 

All questions above were on a scale of 1–6, ranging from “extremely unlikely” to “unlikely,” “a little unlikely,” “a little likely,” “likely,” and “extremely likely.”

write a short informative speech on how to avoid covid 19


How teachers can talk to children about coronavirus disease (covid-19), tips for having age appropriate discussions to reassure and protect children..

Pakistan. A teacher shows a class of children how to wash their hands properly.

< Back to UNICEF COVID-19 portal  

As people around the world are taking precautions to protect themselves, their families and their communities from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) it’s also important that children can continue to learn, and that they can do so in an environment that is welcoming, respectful, inclusive, and supportive to all.

Schools and teachers play a vital role in this. Sharing accurate information and science-based facts about COVID-19 will help diminish students’ fears and anxieties around the disease and support their ability to cope with any secondary impacts in their lives.

Here are some suggestions about how teachers can engage students of different ages ( preschool , primary , lower secondary and upper secondary ) on preventing and controlling the spread of COVID-19 and other viruses. Any conversations or activities should always consider the specific needs of children, the guidance provided by your school, local and/or national authorities, and be based on reputable sources such as UNICEF and the World Health Organization .

Philippines. A boy sits in a classroom.

Primary school

Finland. A 2nd grade class in progress in Pohjois-Haaga Primary School in Helsinki.

Lower secondary school

Upper secondary school

This article was originally published on 13 March 2020. It was last updated on 08 September 2020.  

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Support responsible news and fact-based information today!

12 writing tools to make COVID-19 coverage comprehensible. One stands above the rest.

A dozen tips to give people what they need to make safe decisions and about their health and confidence in their knowledge about the covid-19 pandemic.

write a short informative speech on how to avoid covid 19

This writing advice becomes now and then more urgent. I dragged it out to help reporters covering the Great Recession. I am sharing it again to see if it can stand up to the test of a great pandemic.

I don’t expect such advice to “go viral” — what a newly loaded phrase — but I hope it spreads in support of coverage that takes responsibility for what readers and viewers know and understand. Our goal is twofold:

There are a dozen strategies of clarity and comprehensibility listed below, some with specific reference to coverage of the coronavirus. I have rearranged their original order from the belief that there is one writing strategy that stands above the rest.

While accuracy is clearly the most significant virtue in reporting on something as consequential as a global pandemic, it too often happens that reporters don’t take the next step — working to be understood. Yes, a writer can be accurate and incomprehensible. Perhaps the only thing worse is to be inaccurate and comprehensible because then readers will be acting upon information that is useless or even dangerous.

1. Slow down the pace of information, especially at points of complexity.

A child calls a parent on the phone and blurts out that they are in trouble, talking at the speed of light. What does the parent say? “Slow down, honey, slow down. Now tell me what happened.”

The great writing teacher Don Murray taught me this lesson, and I have tried to pass it along to countless writers: “Use shorter words, shorter sentences, and shorter paragraphs at the points of greatest complexity.”

What does that have to do with slowing down the pace of information?

My best illustration is borrowed from my book “Writing Tools.” Here is a single sentence from an old editorial about state government. It is titled “Curb State Mandates.”

To avert the all too common enactment of requirements without regard for their local cost and tax impact, however, the commission recommends that statewide interest should be clearly identified on any proposed mandates, and that the state should partially reimburse local government for some state imposed mandates and fully for those involving employee compensations, working conditions and pensions.

The writer of this sentence is working hard, but not hard enough. The writer suffers from what psychologist Steven Pinker calls the “curse of knowledge.” He has forgotten what he did not know. And now the writer knows so much, he makes the mistake of thinking the reader can keep up.

So how would you slow down the pace of “Curb State Mandates”? Here is my best try.

The State of New York often passes laws telling local governments what to do. These laws have a name. They are called “state mandates.” On many occasions, these laws improve life for everyone in the state. But they come with a cost. Too often, the state doesn’t consider the cost to local governments, or how much money taxpayers will have to shell out. So we have an idea. The state should pay back local governments for some of these so-called mandates.

The differences in these passages are worth measuring. The original writer gives us one sentence. I give the reader eight. The original writer gives us 58 words, while I deliver 81 words in about the same amount of space, including 59 one-syllable words. My words and sentences are shorter. The passage is clearer.

To the point, the pace of my version is slower.

Since it’s easier to read, why wouldn’t I say the pace is faster? In a sense, yes, it feels faster because the path is smoother. But a sentence is a sentence. There is a period at the end. The Brits call the period a “full stop,” and that’s what it is, a stop sign.

The pace of longer sentences — well-written ones, anyway — has to be fast because we are speeding along, reaching for the period that completes the thought. A series of shorter sentences — with lots of stop signs — offers a slower pace, where readers are more able to grasp a piece of information and then use that piece to get ready for the next sentence.

This is so important I want to repeat it: Too often, the reader gets sprayed with long complicated sentences and just can’t keep up. Think of the period as a stop sign. The more stop signs, the slower the pace, which is good if you are trying to make something clear.

Now let’s see how this might apply to coverage of the current public health crisis. I found this brief description from CNN.

The coronavirus is actually not one type of virus. It is a large family of viruses that also includes SARS and other minor to major respiratory illnesses. Coronaviruses can be spread between animals and people, as we have seen with this current strain. The term “corona,” which is from a Latin root meaning crown or ring of light, refers to the shape of the virus under a microscope.

This feels like the right pace to help readers learn. No need to resort to Dick and Jane sentences in this passage. Let’s count the number of words in each sentence: 9-18-16-25. The pace is fairly easy, and the variation of sentence length gives the reader an agreeable rhythm.

That said: Consider the effect of slowing down the pace even more:

The coronavirus is actually not one type of virus. It is a large family of viruses. That family includes SARS and other minor to major respiratory illnesses, ones that affect your breathing. Coronaviruses can be spread between animals and people. That’s what happened with this current strain. The term “corona” comes from a Latin root meaning crown or ring of light. It refers to the shape of the virus under the microscope.

You can decide if that’s clearer. The word count is 9-7-16-8-7-14-11. I have revised four sentences into seven. Maybe defining what “respiratory” means may be a step too far. Reading the two passages again, I believe that mine is a little more comprehensible. There is still a variety in length, but with a slower pace. That slower pace is created by those seven periods — seven stop signs.

Here is a list of other reporting and writing strategies designed to create comprehensible prose, summarized in a dozen more tips.

2. You may wind up with thousands of readers, but begin in your head with one.

When you are ready to sit at the keyboard and write, you may already know too much. Steven Pinker calls that “the curse of knowledge.” In other words, you forget that just a while ago you were a curious learner. Don’t write down to the audience, but imagine how you would begin to explain your topic to a single person in a congenial telephone chat. (I used to say, “How you would explain it to that person sitting next to you on a barstool,” but that violates social distancing!)

3. Create the illusion of conversation.

Writers talk about wanting to achieve an authentic voice. But in most cases, no writer is speaking aloud. The text is coming off the page or screen. But you can create the illusion of someone speaking to another. The most powerful tool for achieving this is addressing the reader directly as “you.”

This has become absolutely clear in coverage of the pandemic: You cannot overuse the question and answer format. I am seeing Q&As across media platforms, with questions coming from journalists but also other members of the public. A question from a civilian has a way of getting experts to explain things in the language of the common person, at an easy pace. If the pace of information comes too quickly, the questioner can interrupt to slow the expert down.

4. Either avoid jargon – or translate it.

All of us are multilingual, which is to say that we belong to lots of different language clubs. My grandfather was Italian. My grandmother was Jewish. I have a degree in English literature. I play in a rock band. I coached girls soccer. Each of those experiences has taught me to communicate in a different dialect.

When I report on a technical subject, I have to learn a specialized language. But readers are out of the loop and will not understand jargon, unless I teach it to them.

This pandemic generates countless technical terms. They are coming at us so quickly, we often let them fly by us as news consumers. For example, before I wrote this essay I could not tell you the difference between the phrase “coronavirus” and “COVID-19.” Hmm, why were some reporters and specialists using one of those terms rather than the other? In a CNN glossary of related terms , we get this:

“COVID-19 is the specific illness related to the current epidemic. The acronym, provided by the World Health Organization, stands for ‘coronavirus disease 2019,’ referring to the year the virus was first detected. The name of the virus is SARS-CoV-2.”

5. Use as few numbers as will get the job done.

I learned this from Wall Street Journal writer and editor Bill Blundell. “My goal,” he told me, “is to write a WSJ story without a single number. If I can’t do that, then it is to write a story with only ONE really important number.”

Never clot a bunch of numbers in a single paragraph; or worse, three paragraphs. Readers don’t learn that way.

There are lots of confusing numbers coming from government officials and scientists. By reputation, journalists are more literate than we are numerate. When you are using numbers in a story, it is wise to triple check. And have a reliable source with whom you can test your accuracy.

6. Lift the heavy cargo out of the text and put it in a chart or graphic.

I learned this from the world’s best news designer, Mario Garcia. One way to handle numbers — or other technical information — is to deliver it in a visual way. Some things, like travel directions, are difficult to deliver in a text. A map may be better. But remember this: Just because it exists in a graphic does not mean it will be easy to understand. Test it out.

One of the key phrases to come out of the pandemic story is the idea of “flattening the curve.” That phrase is everywhere — and it is crucial. Do you know what it means? I think I do, but I’m not sure I could explain it to my readers. I am a journalist, not a math teacher.

“Flattening the curve,” along with the word “exponential,” are math terms, far beyond the comprehension of the average reader. The most ambitious project to explain this has been undertaken by The Washington Post. Using animated graphics, the Post illustrated four different outcomes on the spread of the virus , based on the severity of the actions we might take to prevent it. With four different versions of the “curve.”

RELATED: How a blockbuster Washington Post story made ‘social distancing’ easy to understand

7. Reveal how the reader can use the information.

Imagine a story where a city is applying for a grant to build a plant to recycle sewage water. “They are going to do what?” asked the city editor. “Will we be drinking piss in this town?” The reporter set him straight: “No, Mike, you don’t drink it. But you can water your lawn with it. And firefighters can put out fires with it. And it will save taxpayers a lot of money, especially during droughts.”

Think of all the ways in which people across the globe are being asked to change the essential patterns of their lives over an extended period of time. They need news they can use.

8. Only quote people who can make things clearer than you can.

A common piece of writing advice is to “Get a good quote high in the story.” The key word there is not “high,” but “good.” If you are working on a tough story — something like the coronavirus — you will be interviewing experts, so be careful.

Experts have a way of showing off their expertise by using jargon. You don’t have to be impolite: “Can ya give it to me in plain English, Doc?” But you can repeat questions such as “How would that work?” “Can you give me another example?” “Can you please repeat that? I want to make sure I’ve got it right.”

I have a feeling that a few figures will emerge as special heroes in the months ahead for their capacity to translate technical language for the public good. I find myself paying special attention to Dr. Anthony Fauci, a medical expert working for the National Institutes of Health. His voice is hoarse and failing, but sobering, clarifying and sometimes comforting messages are coming out loud and clear.

9. Look for opportunities to tell stories — even in miniature.

Reports deliver information to readers. Stories create experiences. We have a word that describes a miniaturized story. It’s called an anecdote. You can tell one in a paragraph, maybe even in just a couple of sentences. “They banged on a garbage can in the dugout so the hitter knew he was getting a curveball.” You can experience that, even though I delivered it in a few words.

I asked my wife the other day how many rolls of toilet paper we had in the house. She guessed 20. I did a search and found 52, none of them purchased in a panic. “It’s just BOGO,” she said. That’s a tiny story from my own experience delivered during a global hoarding of toilet paper.

10. One human is more memorable than tons of data.

I saw a photograph of a young woman trying to visit her grandfather at an assisted living facility. Because of his vulnerability to the coronavirus, they could not be in physical contact. She could not visit him or take care of him. But they could both put their hands on either side of a sliding glass door, that glass a microcosm of the agony of our social separation.

11. Reveal secrets.

People grasp information more aggressively if they believe they are receiving secret knowledge. Sadly, this leads to the generation of misinformation and conspiracy theories. To neutralize such poison, journalists must investigate the secrets of those in power and share them as watchdogs of the public. The word “secret” in a headline is too often used as clickbait. But journalists must work to make strange things family, and there is so much secret knowledge in something like a pandemic that it will take years to expose.

12. Read your draft aloud.

I have taught these lessons to businesses, nonprofits, labor unions and governmental agencies — places, to quote one client “Where language goes to die.” I asked one editor, “Is there a reason why that paragraph has to be 417 words long?” That absence of white space created a dense, impenetrable block of type. Read it aloud, I suggested, and you will be able to hear the natural breaks.

Bonus: 13. Think of subjects and verbs as conjoined twins.

The clearest sentences almost always keep subject and verb together near the beginning. When subjects and verbs in the main clause are separated, all kinds of mischief can occur.

Your job as writers covering the coronavirus is not just to dump data. Your job is to take responsibility for what readers know and understand in the public interest.

You’ve got a lot of work to do, and so far, I think of you as champions of public health and understanding. Thank you, journalists, for your service.

This article was originally published on March 20, 2020.

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Original research article, awareness and preparedness of covid-19 outbreak among healthcare workers and other residents of south-west saudi arabia: a cross-sectional survey.

write a short informative speech on how to avoid covid 19

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a “pandemic” by the World Health Organization (WHO) in early March 2020. Globally, extraordinary measures are being adopted to combat the formidable spread of the ongoing outbreak. Under such conditions, people's adherence to preventive measures is greatly affected by their awareness of the disease.

Aim: This study was aimed to assess the level of awareness and preparedness to fight against COVID-19 among the healthcare workers (HCWs) and other residents of the South-West Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-developed structured questionnaire that was randomly distributed online among HCWs and other residents (age ≥ 12 years) of South-West Saudi Arabia for feedback. The collected data were analyzed using Stata 15 statistical software.

Results: Among 1,000 participants, 36.7% were HCWs, 53.9% were female, and 44.1% were aged ≥ 30 years. Majority of respondents showed awareness of COVID-19 (98.7%) as a deadly, contagious, and life-threatening disease (99.6%) that is transmitted through human-to-human contact (97.7%). They were familiar with the associated symptoms and common causes of COVID-19. Health organizations were chosen as the most reliable source of information by majority of the participants (89.6%). Hand hygiene (92.7%) and social distancing (92.3%) were the most common preventive measures taken by respondents that were followed by avoiding traveling (86.9%) to an infected area or country and wearing face masks (86.5%). Significant proportions of HCWs ( P < 0.05) and more educated participants ( P < 0.05) showed considerable knowledge of the disease, and all respondents displayed good preparedness for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Age, gender, and area were non-significant predictors of COVID-19 awareness.

Conclusion: As the global threat of COVID-19 continues to emerge, it is critical to improve the awareness and preparedness of the targeted community members, especially the less educated ones. Educational interventions are urgently needed to reach the targeted residents beyond borders and further measures are warranted. The outcome of this study highlighted a growing need for the adoption of innovative local strategies to improve awareness in general population related to COVID-19 and its preventative practices in order to meet its elimination goals.


An ongoing outbreak of infection by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), termed as COVID-19, aroused the attention of the entire world. The first infected case of coronavirus was reported on December 31, 2019, in Wuhan, China; within few weeks, infections spread across China and to other countries around the world ( 1 ). On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a public health emergency of international concern, which was the 6th declaration of its kind in WHO history ( 2 , 3 ). Surprisingly, during the first week of March 2020, devastating numbers of new cases were reported globally, and the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a “pandemic” on March 11 ( 4 , 5 ). The outbreak has now spread to more than 200 countries, areas, or territories beyond China ( 6 ). SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of the coronavirus family that has not been previously identified in humans ( 7 ). The disease spreads through person-to-person contact, and the posed potential public health threat is very high. Estimates indicated that COVID-19 could cost the world more than $10 trillion, although considerable uncertainty exists concerning the reach of the virus and the efficacy of the policy response ( 8 ).

The scientists still have limited information about COVID-19, and as a result, the complete clinical picture of COVID-19 is not fully understood yet. Based on currently available information, COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease and its primary clinical symptoms include fever, dry cough, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, myalgia and dyspnea ( 9 – 11 ). This coronavirus spreads primarily through respiratory droplets of >5–10 μm in diameter, discharge from the mouth or nose, when an infected person coughs or sneezes ( 12 , 13 ). Reported illnesses range from very mild (including asymptomatic) to severe including illness resulting to death. However, the information so far suggested the symptoms as mild in almost 80% of the patients with lower death rates. People with co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, who are treated with the drugs such as thiazolidinediones, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) have an increased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2). Since, SARS-CoV-2 binds to their target cells through ACE-2, it was suggested that patients with cardiac disease, hypertension, and diabetes are at the higher risk of developing severe to fatal COVID-19 ( 14 , 15 ). Moreover, elderly people (≥65 years), those and people with chronic lung disease or moderate to severe asthma, who are immunocompromised (due to cancer treatment, bone marrow or organ transplant, AIDS, and prolonged use of corticosteroids or other medications), and those people with severe obesity and chronic liver or kidney disease are at higher risk of developing the COVID-19 severe illness ( 16 – 18 ).

Although, no specific vaccine or treatment is approved for COVID-19, yet several treatment regimens prescribed under different conditions are reported to control the severity and mortality rates up to some extent with few adverse effects, though further evidence is needed ( 19 ). Recently, results of ongoing trials aiming at drug repurposing for the disease have been reported, and several drugs have shown encouraging activity as far as reducing the viral load or the duration of therapy is concerned. Remdesivir is one such antiviral drug, and it has reduced the duration of therapy to 11 days in comparison to 15 days in the case of patients receiving standard care only. Therefore, the USFDA has granted the emergency use authorization (EUA) to Remdesivir for the treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases ( 20 , 21 ); however, further investigations are required to collect the sufficient data ( 22 ). Favipiravir (Avigan) is another drug that has exhibited promising activity in significantly reducing the viral load in comparison to standard care in several trials ( 23 ). Apart from antiviral drugs, convalescent plasma for COVID-19 (as passive antibody therapy) has also been tested, proving to be of possible benefit in severely ill COVID-19 patients. However, it requires more clinical trials to be established for the optimal conditions of COVID-19 and as antibody therapy in this disease ( 24 – 26 ). Mono, and Sarilumab which are immunosuppressants and are humanized antibodies against the interleukin-6 receptor, were also tested on severely ill patients of COVID-19. They effectively improved the clinical symptoms and suppressed the worsening of acute COVID-19 patients and reduced the mortality rate ( 27 , 28 ). Very recently, a corticosteroid, Dexamethasone, has been reported to be a life-saving drug that reduced the incidences of deaths by one-third among patients critically ill with COVID-19 ( 29 ) requiring oxygen support.

So far, more than 9 million confirmed cases of COVID- 19 infections have been identified globally with more than 0.46 million confirmed deaths (as on June 21, 2020). Saudi Arabia has also been seriously affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and reported its first confirmed case on March 3, 2020. The numbers are continuously increasing and reached 157,612 on June 21, 2020, with 1,267 confirmed deaths all over the kingdom ( 30 , 31 ) having reproduction number from 2.87 to 4.9 ( 32 ). Before the emergence of COVID-19, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was the major concern in 2012 ( 33 ), though it was successfully controlled in Saudi Arabia. In response to the growing public health threat posed by COVID-19, the Saudi government adopted some unprecedented measures related to awareness and prevention in order to control COVID-19 transmission in the country. These measures included the closure of schools, universities, public transportation, and all public places as well as the isolation and care for infected and suspected cases ( 34 ). On March 9, 2020, government authorities announced the lockdown of the whole country and released advice for Saudi nationals and residents present inside or outside of country to stay at home and maintain social distancing. Moreover, the Saudi government decided to suspend congregational prayers across all mosques in the kingdom, including the two holy mosques in Makkah and Madinah ( 35 ).

The fight against COVID-19 continues globally, and to guarantee success, people's adherence to preventive measures is essential. It is mostly affected by their awareness and preparedness toward COVID-19. Knowledge and attitudes toward infectious diseases are often associated with the level of panic among the population, which could further complicate the measures taken to prevent the spread of the disease. As “natural hazards are inevitable; the disaster is not,” ( 36 ) to facilitate the management of the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia, there is an urgent need to understand the public's awareness and preparedness for COVID-19 during this challenging time. The present study assessed the awareness and preparedness toward COVID-19 among South Western Saudi residents during the early rapid rise of the COVID-19 outbreak. It included HCWs (doctors, nurses, and community pharmacists) and other members of the community, including the employed, unemployed, as well as students.

Subjects and Methods

Setting and population.

A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 18 and March 25—the week immediately after the announcement of lockdown in Saudi Arabia. For this study, two highly populated regions (Jazan and Aseer) of South-West Saudi Arabia and adjacent rural villages were selected. All Saudi citizens and residents, males and females of age 12 years or more (including HCWs and other community peoples), who were willing to participate in the study irrespective of COVID-19 infection status were included in the study. People who did not meet the above inclusion criteria were not eligible and were thus excluded from the study.

Sample Size

The required sample size for this study was calculated using a Denial equation ( 37 ) where the significance level (alpha) was set to 0.05 and power (1-β) was set to 0.80. It resulted in a required final sample size of 384 individuals. Therefore, to minimize the errors, the sample size taken for this study was 1,000.

Outcome Measures

The present study examined the level of awareness and preparedness toward prevention of COVID-19 using area, gender, age, education level, and occupation as explanatory variables among the residents (HCWs and other community peoples) of South-West Saudi Arabia.

Since this is a novel coronavirus with no such study having been conducted before, a standardized (structured, pre-coded, and validated) questionnaire was developed for this study by our co-authors, and it is based on frequently asked questions (FAQ) found on Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and WHO official websites ( 38 , 39 ). The questions were multiple choice and sought to gain insight into the respondent's awareness and preparedness toward COVID-19. A pilot survey of 10 individuals was undertaken first to ensure that the questions elicited appropriate response and there were no problems with the entry of answers into the database. Since, it was not feasible to conduct a community-based national sampling survey during this critical period; we decided to collect the data online through a Google survey. The self-reported questionnaire is divided into three sections. The first part is designed to obtain background information, including demographic characteristics (nationality, age, gender, level of educational, and occupation). The second part of the survey consists of questions that address awareness concerning COVID-19 (reliable source of information, symptoms, mode of transmission, incubation period, complications, high-risk population, treatment, and preventive measures). The third part of the survey consists of questions that address the preparedness to fight against COVID-19. The questionnaire is designed in English, being subsequently translated into Arabic for the convenience and ease of understanding of the participants, and it was pre-tested to ensure that it maintained its original meaning.

Data Collection and Analysis

Data were collected using a random sampling method and analyzed using the statistical software Stata 15. For categorical variables, data were presented as frequencies and percentages. A chi-squared (χ 2 ) test was used to examine the association between each item in awareness and explanatory variable in the bivariate analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was computed using each item in awareness and preparedness as an outcome separately to examine the relationships in the adjusted analysis. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05.

Ethical Approval

The study protocol and procedures of informed consent were granted ethical approval by the “Institutional Research Review and Ethics Committee (IRREC), College of Pharmacy, Jazan University” before the formal survey was conducted. Since this study was conducted during the lockdown period, a Google survey was prepared with an online informed consent form on the first page. Participants are informed about the contents of the questionnaire, and they have to answer a yes/no question to confirm their willingness to participate voluntarily. In case of minors (participants below 16 years of age), they are asked to show the form to their parents/guardians before selecting their answer. The patients/participants or their legal guardians have to provide their written informed consent to participate in this study. After an affirmative response of the question, the participant is directed to complete the self-report questionnaire. All responses are anonymous.

Demographic Characteristics

Respondents' demographic descriptions are summarized in Table 1 . A total of 1,000 participants completed the survey questionnaire, the split being 46.1% male and 53.9% female. The majority of participants are from Jazan region (74.8%) compared to 25.2% from Aseer province. More than half (55.9%) of the participants are of <30 years of age, and 44.1% are aged ≥ 30 years. Around 79.5% respondents are university graduates holding a bachelor's degree or higher, whereas 20.5% of participants possess educational qualifications of secondary school or lower (non-graduates). HCWs make up 36.7% of participants, and 63.3% of participants are classified as other.

Table 1 . Socio-demographic characteristics of participants.

Knowledge of COVID-19 Disease and Personal Protection Measures

Table 2 displays respondents' knowledge about COVID-19, reliable sources of information, modes of transmission, symptoms of infection and complications, its perceived threat, and high-risk population. Respondents were allowed to choose more than one option from the choices given according to their understanding and conscience. The results indicated that majority of respondents had heard of and were aware of COVID-19 disease. Most of the participants (97.7%) correctly identified human-to-human transmission (contaminated person with virus) as the primary mode of transmission. Furthermore, fever, cough, and difficulty in breathing were stated as the most common COVID-19 symptoms by 89.8, 83.9, and 90.9% of respondents, respectively. The frequently reported complications of COVID-19 were pneumonia (79.4%), kidney failure (22.8%), and death (54.9%) by the respondents.

Table 2 . Awareness about COVID-19, its symptoms, transmission, and complications.

Participants' knowledge of personal protection against COVID-19 is summarized in Table 3 . The majority of respondents (76.4%) believe that there is no treatment available for COVID-19 to date, 47.1% report supportive care, and 45.8% state personal safety as the only treatment option. The most common personal protection practices adopted by participants are washing hands (92.7%), social distancing (92.3%), using a face mask (86.5%), and avoiding travel to infected areas or countries (86.9%). However, importantly, 63.8% participants believe in avoiding raw and under-cooked animal products, 16.2% choose to avoid purchasing products made in China, and 1.7% have knowledge of proper prevention methods. Approximately, half of the respondents (42.4%) report that they seek more information on COVID-19.

Table 3 . Awareness about personal protection and preparedness against COVID-19.

Preparedness to Fight Against COVID-19

Results of participants' preparedness against COVID-19 are summarized in Table 3 . Over one-third of participants are well-prepared and adopt various methods for the current situation. The majority of participants stat that they avoid crowded places, mass gatherings, or traveling to suspected areas (95.1%), and 82.7% wear face masks when going outside and have increased the use of hand sanitizers and home cleaning materials. Many of them (76.8%) now spend 20 seconds washing their hands using soap multiple times a day. However, it could be assumed from the survey that a considerable percentage of the participants do not find the protective measures necessary, visit crowded places, and do not wear face masks when leaving home.

On the other hand, HCWs also reported their preparedness on different areas to fight against COVID-19 ( Figure 1 ). All 367 (100%) HCWs who participated in this study say that they checked adequate supplies of goggles, masks, and gowns on hand for emergencies, 99.7% say they prepared links or are in contact with External Resource Centers for COVID-19 such as the CDC or WHO, 98% evaluated the patient care equipment, including portable ventilators (preparation and patient handling checklists), and 83.4% checked and prepared alternative suppliers list of certain personal protective equipment etc. Surprisingly, 18.3% of the respondents are unaware of any preparation, and 4.5% do not find it necessary.

Figure 1 . HCWs preparedness to fight against COVID 19. P1, Check adequate supplies of goggles, masks, and gowns on hand for emergencies. P2, Links to or contact External Resource Centers for COVID-19 (Coronavirus) (CDC, WHO etc.). P3, Check patient care equipment, including portable ventilators. P4, Recommendations for infection control to help biomedical and clinical engineers. P5, Check alternative suppliers of certain personal protective equipment. P6, Prepared the list to supply chain professionals. P7, Do not need any preparation. P8, I don't know.

Bivariate Analysis

The comparison between educational groups and occupational groups (HCWs vs. other residents) demonstrated significant differences in the level of knowledge and preventive measures for COVID-19 disease ( Tables 4 , 5 ). The survey shows educated participants (bachelors or more) and HCWs were more aware about COVID-19 symptoms ( P ≤ 0.001), incubation period ( P ≤ 0.001), complications ( P ≤ 0.001), high-risk populations ( P ≤ 0.01), and available treatment ( P ≤ 0.05) compared to less-educated (≤high school) ones and other residents (non HCWs). Jazan area participants heard about ( P ≤ 0.002), and showed more awareness regarding COVID-19 symptoms (fever: P ≤ 0.001), and available treatment (supportive care: P ≤ 0.001) as compared to the Aseer region. There were no significant differences found in knowledge level between gender (male vs. female) and age groups.

Table 4 . Awareness of COVID-19 stratified by occupation groups among the study participants ( n = 1,000).

Table 5 . Awareness of COVID-19 stratified by educational groups among the study participants ( n = 1,000).

Significant differences were observed in awareness about protective measures between educational groups and occupational groups ( Tables 4 , 5 ). The survey shows that the educated participants (Bachelors or more) and HCWs consider the use of face masks, frequent washing of hands, social distancing, and avoid traveling to an infected area or country as preventive measures, more so than their counter group ( P < 0.05). However, gender, age, and area comparisons on these measures were non-significant. Moreover, the survey exhibited no significant differences regarding preparedness to fight against COVID-19 level between areas, age, gender, and educational and occupational groups.

Multivariable Logistic Regressions

It was found that HCWs were more likely to be aware of COVID-19 symptoms (fever: OR = 2.15, P = 0.008; cough: OR = 1.66, P = 0.018 etc.), complications (pneumonia: OR = 2.37, P = 0.001; kidney failure: OR = 1.54, P = 0.013 etc.), populations at high risk, available treatment, and preventive measures compared to the other community members who were non-HCWs. On the other hand, less-educated participants (≤secondary schooling) were more likely to have knowledge about COVID-19 symptoms (fever: OR = 4.24, P = 0.014; breathing difficulty: OR = 2.94, P = 0.043 etc.), high-risk population (OR = 3.29, P = 0.001), complications, and preventive measures (social distancing: OR = 2.08, P = 0.008; avoid traveling to infected area or country: OR = 2.01, P = 0.002 etc.) compared to the higher-educated participants, as shown in Tables 6 , 7 . Tables displayed outcomes with statistically significant association only with explanatory variable. Area (Jazan vs. Aseer), gender (male vs. female), and age group (age <30 years vs. ≥30 years) were not associated significantly with COVID-19 knowledge. Surprisingly, no difference was reported for preparedness to fight against COVID-19 among participants.

Table 6 . Multivariable logistic regression on factors significantly associated with awareness toward COVID-19.

Table 7 . Multivariable logistic regression analysis on factors significantly associated with preventive measures toward COVID-19.

As the outbreak of COVID-19 is expanding exponentially, spreading beyond borders and spreading across continents, it has been classified as a “pandemic.” It created havoc and dismay among all nations. This new viral infection is successful in inducing restlessness, confusion, and fear among the people. The uniqueness of this infection is that it shows little or no symptoms in the beginning, and many do not even know they are infected. It does not induce any severe change or indication in the infected person so that he can seek medical attention at an early stage. By the time infected persons realize that they are infected, they might have spread the disease to a large number of people without their knowledge and any ulterior motives. Therefore, the first and foremost strategy to win the battle over COVID-19 shall be stopping the spread of disease effectively among the people. Hence, the main focus of this research was to assess the awareness of people, particularly among HCWs as well as other residents, about the disease, how they prepared themselves to fight against it, and whether they are participating in the eradication of the infection or not. We are aware that COVID-19 had taken the nation by surprise when they were least prepared to face the pandemic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind, conducted in Saudi Arabia that is assessing the awareness and preparedness toward COVID-19 among HCWs and other residents.

Our survey of HCWs and other residents of the study region was well-received. People of different educational backgrounds and employments participated in the survey. The majority of them are graduates, followed by people who had education up to high school. Similarly, among different employment backgrounds, HCWs make up more than one-third of the sample size. In the first place, HCWs and graduates should be aware of the disease profile, so that they can quickly spread the message among their family members, their neighbors, and all those who are within their contact. Analysis of the study results showed that both HCWs and the graduates possess adequate knowledge about the infection. It was a significant finding of our study that they can not only protect themselves against the disease but also help others to stay away from the infection by creating awareness for it. As the results suggested, health organizations (89.6%) and healthcare professionals (57.9%) are able to communicate effectively to the participants in convincing and making them understand the patterns and phases of the infection. This study also revealed that some people showed little trust in social media and other sources of communications such as television, newspaper, posters, etc. They were not convinced or accepting of the facts disseminated to them initially. It is probably for this reason that few people showed reluctance in following the guidelines given through these channels and kept ignoring them. This lack of acceptance might have accelerated the spread of this disease among the public.

Our study revealed that HCWs and people with a higher educational background (graduation or more) were more aware of the symptoms and the complications of COVID-19. It is spread via human-to-human transmission through droplet, feco-oral, and direct contact and has an incubation period of 2–14 days ( 13 ). The majority of the participants (97.7%) mentioned human-to-human contact as the primary cause of COVID-19 transmission. They were aware that the infection is related to the respiratory system, and there could be some difficulties in breathing with high temperatures accompanied by dry cough. Furthermore, it might lead to pneumonia, organ failure, and death. Indeed, COVID-19 induces these symptoms after the log period ( 40 ), although in some cases. Also, HCWs keenly follow the situation in the regions and the countries regarding the number of cases of infected and fresh cases reported daily. It perhaps helps them in getting prepared physically to manage the situation by acquiring the important things that are required in combating the disease, and it might also help them to get prepared mentally. They were aware of the social distancing, hand hygiene, using face masks, and avoiding traveling. These are the desired activities, which are expected to be practiced strictly in order to stop the spread of the disease ( 41 – 44 ). Our study revealed that HCWs and educated residents were following it meticulously. It was also known to them that no specific and effective treatment is available for COVID-19 to date, and whatever therapy is available at the designated centers is non-specific and treats only symptoms. They are sufficient enough to relieve the symptoms of the infection, to overcome difficulties in breathing, and to boost the immunity of the individuals. A similar level of awareness was reported in recent studies in China ( 10 ) and the UAE ( 45 ). This may be attributed to continuous practice of raising awareness about COVID-19 in communities about health issues by healthcare organizations and Saudi health extension workers, which has been effectively implemented in recent days ( 46 ).

Previously, MERS-CoV was a major global concern after it was first identified in 2012 in Saudi Arabia ( 33 ). Many awareness studies reported different levels of knowledge about MERS disease among Saudi HCWs and residents after the MERS outbreak ( 47 – 49 ). Present findings showed that the awareness regarding COVID-19 disease was higher compared to MERS. This can be ascribed to the global reach of COVID-19, as it is more serious than MERS owing to its high rate of transmission, alarming number of cases, and the continued global death count.

As far as preparedness to fight against COVID-19 is concerned, our study showed that all the participants were aware of avoiding mass gathering, avoiding traveling to suspected areas, the use of face masks and hand sanitizers, and maintaining proper food hygiene. During the lockdown period, the majority of the people who participated in our study stockpiled sufficient food items, and the frequency of going out to buy groceries and other food items can thus be avoided. According to them, a large number of people at supermarkets do not practice appropriate social distancing, and chances of contracting the infection might increase. This is genuinely desirable and precautionary in a situation like COVID-19, as coming closer to or violating social distancing is risky. Perhaps this preparedness is a reflection of steps taken by government authorities, as Saudi Arabia can control the spread of COVID-19 in South-West region. When the whole world is struggling to control COVID-19 spreading, Saudi Arabia has reported 1,155 positive cases (as of June 21, 2020) in Jazan and Aseer region (313 and 842, respectively) among 157,612 positive cases the entire country ( 50 ).

Also, our study confirmed that nearly half of the participants were ready to visit the hospital immediately if needed. The WHO recommends that identification of the infected individual is the first and essential step required in combating COVID-19. It also advises nations to allow citizens to get tested and put them in quarantine if they are infected. It is a significant step, as nearly 50% of the people are aware of the importance of testing in suspected cases but the remaining 50% of the participants are not. Doubts or fears about quarantine can make the public hide behind closed doors. This behavior of theirs could be dangerous, as it not only puts them in a difficult situation, but is risks their entire family and neighbors. Surprisingly, nearly 42.4% of the participants have asked for more information about COVID-19 so that they can take sufficient precautions and prepare themselves to avoid contracting the disease. These are the participants who had fewer opportunities to access healthcare services. They indeed need more information on COVID-19 to stay away from the deadly disease. This is the substantial finding of our study: nearly half of the participants did not have detailed information or a desire to gain more knowledge about the disease. The focus of the administrators should be on this category of people—the common man—so that they too can prepare themselves to fight the disease. Overall, the reported preparedness could be because the healthcare authorities have already initiated awareness and preparedness activities beyond their own borders. Every country around the world is being encouraged to draft a preparedness plan as per the WHO's global guidelines: “The ‘COVID-19' Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan” (SPRP). The SPRP outlines the public health measures that are needed to be taken to support countries to prepare for and respond to COVID-19 ( 51 , 52 ).

It was observed that the educational background plays a significant role in understanding the infection quickly. This survey showed that HCWs and people with higher education have a better understanding of the disease than their counterparts. Even though all the groups showed almost identical knowledge about the primary information of the disease, in some areas, such as disease complications, high-risk populations, personal protection measures, and treatment availability, a clear distinction exists. For example, only 68.78% of the less educated showed awareness of the high risk of contracting the infection of older people.

The WHO have initiated several online training sessions and materials on COVID-19 in various languages to strengthen preventive strategies, including raising awareness and training HCWs in preparedness activities ( 53 ). In several instances, misunderstandings among HCWs have delayed controlling efforts to provide necessary treatment ( 44 ), which led to the rapid spread of infection in hospitals ( 33 , 49 ) and putting patients' lives at risk. The present study also analyzed the preparedness of HCWs to fight against COVID-19 and found all participated HCWs were well prepared and ready for the current outbreak.

All participating HCWs report that they have adequate supplies of personal protective equipment's (PPEs), such as goggles, masks, and gowns, to manage emergencies, 99.72% of HCWs depend on an external resource center like CDC and WHO for the required emergency materials, and 98% HCWs say that they have already checked their hospitals equipped with patient care equipment, including portable ventilators. Surprisingly, few respondents (18.26%) say they were unaware of any preparation, and very few (4.36%) say that there is no need for any preparation. In general, our study indicated that the HCWs have well equipped themselves to fight against COVID-19. Although, hospitals and HCWs are fully geared up to face the pandemic situation, the best national option available is to spread awareness in order to stop the spread of disease. We have no other way but to educate our fellow citizens to not indulge in any activities that could lead them being a part of the problem. Instead, they should be encouraged to be the part of the solution.

The WHO has published guidance for public health and social measures at the workplace within the context of COVID-19. This included the standards for all workplaces and specific criteria for workplaces and jobs at medium risk and high risk. The guidance suggested to adapt the essential preventive measures for all workplaces, including practicing hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing (avoid direct physical contact by hugging, touching, or shaking hands), reducing and otherwise managing work-related travel, regular environmental cleaning and disinfection, risk communication, training and education, and management of people with COVID-19 or their contacts. In addition, specific measures for workplaces and jobs at medium risk included frequent cleaning and disinfection of objects and surfaces that are touched regularly (fomites). In such places where physical distancing of 1 meter cannot be maintained for a particular activity, all mitigating actions possible should be taken to reduce the risk of transmission between workers, clients or customers, contractors, and visitors, and these include staggered activities, minimizing face-to-face and skin-to-skin contact, ensuring workers work side-by-side or facing away from each other rather than face-to-face, and assigning staff to the same shift teams to limit social interaction. Along with that, such workplaces must be well-ventilated with a natural air of artificial ventilation without re-circulation of air for high-risk work activities and jobs. The WHO have advised that we find possibilities to suspend operations or adhere to the hygiene measures before and after contact with or suspicion of COVID-19. In such cases, workers must comply with the use of medical masks, disposable gowns, gloves, and eye protection for workers and use of protective equipment when in contact with COVID-19 patients, their respiratory secretions, body fluids, and highly contaminated waste. HCWs must be trained in infection prevention and control practices and use of PPEs to handle such situations ( 54 , 55 ).

The knowledge and awareness of the disease are important parameters for the adoption of protective measures that minimize the exposure risk of the illness. Our findings suggest that residents who are less educated and who are non-healthcare professionals possess less knowledge of COVID-19 disease and preventive measures than their counterparts. Therefore, health promotion and awareness programs are warranted to address these particular sections of the population. Thus, COVID-19 awareness programs and other educating strategies should be developed and implemented more effectively to eradicate this disease and increase the breadth of knowledge of rurally and minimally educated populations. These findings are useful for public health policymakers and health workers to recognize target populations for COVID-19 prevention and health education.

The strength of the study lies in its large sample size, recruited during a crucial period—the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, this was an online self-reported survey conducted during lockdown due to pandemic, and this affected our outreach to the general population. Our sample was obviously over-representative of well-educated people, including healthcare workers, and those who have access to computers and the internet. Hence it may not truly represent the entire population of the study region. Therefore, the generalization of the findings may suffer from reporting bias.

The present study sheds light on the current level of awareness regarding COVID 19, including knowledge, preventative practices, and preparedness in the South-West region of Saudi Arabia, which is still struggling to achieve its target of total COVID-19 eradication. The results of this survey indicated that the majority of respondents were aware of the knowledge, preventive measures and well prepared to fight against COVID-19. It was evident that the community's overall COVID-19 awareness and their preparedness among educated and HCWs populations were fairly satisfactory. However, there were few misconceptions regarding the mode of COVID-19 transmission among the participants, which need to be addressed. Knowledge and preparedness do translate into improved practices toward COVID-19 prevention and the same was reflected in this study. In order to achieve complete control over COVID-19, it would also be worthwhile to invest in various COVID-19 prevention efforts, including health education and innovative strategies based on local evidences to raise the community's awareness and to improve its preventative practices.

Data Availability Statement

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

Author Contributions

RT and PT: conceptualization, methodology, writing of the original draft, investigation, project administration, and final editing. SSA and AA: supervision, co-project administration, data collection, feedback, and making substantive changes. AM: software, validation, and formal analysis. SA: visualization and investigation. WA and DB: data collection and calculations, writing, reviewing, editing of the manuscript, and formal analysis. FA: preparation of Google form and Arabic translation. All authors participated in the distribution of the survey.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


We wish to acknowledge Deanship of Scientific Research, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia, for their continuous support throughout the study.

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Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, outbreak, awareness, preparedness, healthcare, residents, questionnaire

Citation: Tripathi R, Alqahtani SS, Albarraq AA, Meraya AM, Tripathi P, Banji D, Alshahrani S, Ahsan W and Alnakhli FM (2020) Awareness and Preparedness of COVID-19 Outbreak Among Healthcare Workers and Other Residents of South-West Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Front. Public Health 8:482. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00482

Received: 15 May 2020; Accepted: 28 July 2020; Published: 18 August 2020.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2020 Tripathi, Alqahtani, Albarraq, Meraya, Tripathi, Banji, Alshahrani, Ahsan and Alnakhli. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Pankaj Tripathi,

Advancing social justice, promoting decent work

Ilo is a specialized agency of the united nations.

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