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Development of Education during British Period in India

Education policy of the british: in pre-british days, hindus and muslims were educated through pathsala and madrassa respectively, but their advent created a new place of learning i.e. missionaries. so that, they can create a class of indian who would be “indian in blood and colour, but english in taste” who would act as interpreters between the government and the masses..


1813 Act & the Education

General committee of public instruction, 1823, lord macaulay’s education policy, 1835, bombay plan: a plan for the economic development of india, wood’s dispatch, 1854, hunter commission (1882-83), sadler commission.

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British Education System In India - Features and Impact

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British Education System In India - Features and Impact-Image


GS-I: Modern History

Prelims: History of India and Indian National Movement

Mains: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country. 

British Education System In India: Different facets of life changed when British territorial rule over India was established. With the handover of power to the British, education was one of those areas that underwent significant change. The colonial rulers created the educational system in a colonial country to legitimise their rule and meet their own economic needs. The British Education System In India was formally established through the Charter Acts.

In 1813, when the Charter was up for renewal, the British Parliament ordered the East India Company to set aside Rs 1 lakh annually "for the revival and promotion of literature, the encouragement of the learned natives of India, and for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories."

As a result, the Queen made official financial arrangements for the first time, and the East India Company was given responsibility for the natives' education.

Policies under British Education System in India

Before the acquisition of territorial power, the Company had no role in education; however, there were attempts by the missionaries to establish charity schools and to promote learning.

  • Due to the fear of adverse reactions and opposition to their role by the local people, the Company maintained neutrality on education after becoming a territorial power.
  • The opinions were also divided on whether the Company should promote western or oriental learning.
  • Some individuals played a significant role in promoting English education in Calcutta. For example- The establishment of Hindu College by David Hare. Raja Ram Mohan Roy headed its foundation committee.

Impact of British Education System In India

  • It helped in creating a new class of people who later helped them in governance as well as in controlling many aspects of administration in India.
  • English as a link language: The use of English by Indians provided one language that cut across the entire country and became a common link for them.
  • Growth of national consciousness: English books and newspapers brought to Indians new ideas from the West, like freedom, democracy, equality and brotherhood.
  • Neglect of mass education: This was one of the major weaknesses of the British Education System In India. In 1911, 94% of Indians lacked literacy, which changed to 92% by 1921.
  • Neglect of female education: The almost complete disregard for girls' education, for which there were no funds allocated, was a significant flaw in the early policy of the British Education System In India.
  • Neglect of scientific and technical education: The Company’s administration also neglected scientific and technical education. By 1857, the country had only three medical colleges at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras and only one engineering college in Roorkee.
  • Minimal financial support : The issue of finance was at the heart of many of the drawbacks of the education policies during British India.

The indigenous system of education was replaced by the new British Education System In India. There were many Englishmen who tried to promote oriental learning, but the Anglicists prevailed over such Orientalists. New schools and colleges were established to promote learning. New social, political and economic ideas came through the channel of Western education. But the British Education System In India ignored scientific and technical education. Moreover, the beneficiary of this education was mainly the upper crust of society. So the transformation that came with English education was very limited in nature.

PYQs on British Education System In India

Question 1: Wellesley established the Fort William College at Calcutta because (UPSC Prelims 2020)

  • he was asked by the Board of Directors at London to do so
  • he wanted to revive interest in oriental learning in India
  • he wanted to provide William Carey and his associates with employment
  • he wanted to train British civilians for administrative purpose in India

Answer: (d)

Question 2: With reference to educational institutes during colonial rule in India, consider the following pairs: (UPSC Prelims 2018)

                Institution                                          Founder

  • Sanskrit College at Benaras                William Jones
  • Calcutta Madrasa                                Warren Hastings
  • Fort William College                           Arthur Wellesley

Which of the pairs given above is/are correct?

Answer: (b)

FAQs on British Education System in India

Q) what were the drawbacks of the british education system in india.

At all levels, the growth of education was uneven. Primary schools were harmed by a lack of funding. Because English was the only language used for instruction, the average person did not benefit from it.

Q) What was the aim of the British Education System In India?

The first goal was to create a class of translators to serve as a link between the British emperors and the millions of Indians they ruled. The second goal was to create a group of people who were British in intelligence, morals, and taste but of Indian blood and colour.

Q) What were the indigenous efforts taken for the spread of education under British rule?

Under British rule, the impetus to education was given by Nationalists. For example- Gokhale was the first and foremost architect of the Bill on compulsory and free education. Clause 6 of Gokhale’s Bill provided for the banning of child labour as a pre-condition for the enforcement of school attendance.

Q) Which was the first education commission set up after independence?

The first committee for the most important education in independent India was the University Education Committee of 1948, Radhakrishnan, to report on the status of Indian university education and propose improvements and extensions.

Q) What was the positive impact of the British Education System on Indian society?

Dalits rebelled and fought for their rights as a result of Dalits being educated by the British in an equal and nondiscriminatory manner. Additionally, widows' rights were granted. Eliminating vices like Sati and untouchability is a step in the direction of a more tolerant and advanced society.

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British education system

British Boarding School

an introduction to the British education system

The education system in the UK is divided into four main parts, primary education, secondary education, further education and higher education.

The education system in the UK is also split into "key stages" which breaks down as follows:

  • Key Stage 1:  5 to 7 years old
  • Key Stage 2:  7 to 11 years old
  • Key Stage 3:  11 to 14 years old
  • Key Stage 4:  14 to 16 years old

UK primary education

primary school students

Primary school education begins in the UK at age 5 and continues until age 11, comprising key stages one and two under the UK educational system.

Some primary schools are split up into Infant and Junior levels. These are usually separate schools on the same site. The infant age range (Key Stage 1) is from age 5 to 7. The Junior age range (Key Stage 2) is from age 7 to 11. The year groups at primary School level are:

Year R (Reception) (age 4 – 5) Year 1 (age 5 - 6) Year 2 (age 6 - 7) The year when SATs testing takes place for Key Stage 1 Year 3 (age 7 - 8) Year 4 (age 8 - 9) Year 5 (age 9 - 10) Year 6 (age 10 - 11) The year when SATs testing takes place for Key Stage 2

secondary school - years 7 and 8

boys in classroom

Years 7 and 8 are the first two years of secondary school education in the UK. In some independent schools they are included in the Junior School, in others, they are part of the Senior School. 

Under the UK school system, all students study English, Maths, Sciences, a Humanity and a Modern Language. Besides these subjects, each school has a list with optional subjects (Art, Music, Drama, Latin, Sport Science, Design Technology, Computer Science),  and  students may choose a few subjects that interest them. 

In some schools, students sit the Common Entrance Exam in year 7. There are 3 examination sessions, in November, January and May/June. The transition from Junior to Senior School (from year 8 to year 9) may be conditioned upon the Common Entrance Exam results in those schools.

secondary school - year 9

St Mary's School, Shafestbury girls

Year 9 is a very important year in the British school system, as most of the students make the transition from Junior School to Senior School. It is also a very good foundation for the GCSE programme and it is an entry point to all schools. 

Students study English, Maths, Sciences, Humanity and Languages. In addition, students choose a few subjects from the optional subject list offered by each school. 

secondary education - years 10 and 11

science class of students

GCSE programme

In the last two years of secondary education, which are called Year 10 and Year 11, starting at age 14, students prepare for GCSE exams that are taken after two years (General Certificate of Secondary Education).

In the UK school system, during the GCSE programme, students study between 9 and 12 subjects. Some of them are compulsory (English, Math, 2/3 Sciences, History/Geography, a Modern Language etc.), some are chosen by each student according to their abilities and preferences. At the end of the 2 year GCSE programme, following the examinations on each studied subject, students receive their GCSE Certificates.

The chosen subjects and the GCSE results are very important for their Further Studies (A-Level or IB) and for their University admission.

Intensive 1 year GCSE

Some schools offer a 1 Year GCSE programme in Year 11 for international students seeking a school education in the UK. These intensive, one year courses, are available for students aged 15 plus, with the appropriate academic level from their own country. Fewer subjects are studied (maximum 6).

The IGCSE programme ( International  General Certificate of Secondary Education) prepare international students for A-Level and/or IB.

Students study between 5 and 7 subjects, English, Maths and Science being included. Each school has a list of available subjects for IGCSE students. At the end of Year 11, students take exams in each studied subject and receive IGCSE Certificates.

university preparation - years 12 and 13

sixth form students on steps in uniform

A level study

In the UK school system, once a student reaches the age of 16, they can start a 2 year programme which leads to A (Advanced) level examinations. Students specialise in 3 or 4 subjects, that are usually relevant to the degree subject they wish to follow at university. A levels are state examinations and are recognised by all UK universities and by institutions worldwide.

At the end of Year 13, following the examinations in each subject, the students receive A level Certificates.

International Baccalaureate (IB)

Those who would like to study more than 3-4 subjects, may continue their studies in a broader number of subjects with the International Baccaularete Diploma Programme, offered by some independent schools.

During the IB, students study 6 subjects, 3 at higher level (HL) and 3 at standard level (SL). Each school offers different subjects at different study levels (HL/SL). The IB programme also includes a compulsory Core programme consisting of Theory of Knowledge (TOK), Extended Essay (EE) and Creativity, Activity, Service (CAS).

Students take written examinations on each subject at the end of their courses.

further education - vocational courses

group of students at university walking away

International students can either choose a state sixth form college or a college of further education as an alternative to private education. Both offer GCSE and A level courses for students from the age of 16. Colleges of further education also offer foundation and diploma courses. All colleges can prepare students for entry to a  UK university or any university in the world. Bright World works with a number of state colleges in the UK which provide a multitude of vocational and academic courses. These courses can enable students to pursue their chosen career or to gain a place at a university of their choice.

The British school system also extends to BTEC courses which are designed for students who would like to develop practical knowledge and skills in a specific subject (Business, Psychology, Engineering, Sport, Art & Design) and find traditional exams challenging. Focussing on practical, skills-based learning, the BTEC students are assessed during the course. After each unit students are assessed through assignments, tasks or tests, and not at the end of the programme as it happens with GCSE or A-Level students.

university - foundation courses

Girl writing and studying in library

From age 17, international students can opt to study one year foundation programmes, instead of A levels or IB. These courses lead to private examinations that are an alternative to A levels. Foundation courses at colleges are recognised by universities with whom they have partnerships.

Some universities also offer foundation courses that lead onto their own degree programmes.

Bright World has partnerships with a number of colleges and Pathway providers and can help place students into Foundation and Diploma courses in London and across the UK.

university - undergraduate study

Student at Cambridge University

In the UK, a British bachelors degree normally takes three years to complete and most are awarded at honours level. Examples of first degrees are: BA (Bachelor of Arts), BEng (Bachelor of Engineering), and BSc (Bachelor of Science).

State colleges offer some 2 year vocational diplomas that grant exemption from the first and sometimes second year of a degree programme. Some private tutorial colleges offer a one year diploma programme which is equivalent to year 1 of university. Students taking 1 year diplomas are awarded second year entry at some universities.

university - postgraduate study

Girl studying with pencil and laptop

Postgraduate courses in the UK education system are very intensive. This means that the courses are usually much shorter than in other countries. A master's degree typically takes 12 months to complete, for example an MA - Master of Arts and an MEng - Master of Engineering. An MBA (Master of Business Administration) is a high profile Masters course which can take 2 years. Applicants will usually be high achieving with at least 2 years managerial experience. A PhD research degree in the UK can take between 2 and 7 years.

boarding schools

St John's School, Sidmouth

Bright World works almost exclusively with privately funded schools and colleges. A boarding school is a residential school where pupils live and study during the school year. There are approximately 500 boarding schools across England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

UK boarding schools offer pupils an outstanding education, helping them to develop their skills and progress to university. All UK boarding schools have to meet strict government standards on the quality of their teaching, facilities and student care.

Many UK boarding schools combine beautiful, centuries-old buildings with a mix of modern classrooms and traditional architecture. The excellent facilities help make living and learning a great experience and pupils will will improve their  English skills while they study.

tutorial colleges

MPW College

Tutorial Colleges start at age 15 and have a more flexible programme range, focussing on fast access to UK university.

Many of the independent private sixth form colleges in Oxford, Cambridge and London work on a 'tutorial system' and are often referred to as 'tutorial colleges'. The tutorial system originates from Oxford and Cambridge Universities and is a very highly regarded and much tested system. It it is still used today and is the cornerstone of an 'Oxbridge' education. A tutorial is a small class of only a few students, in which the tutor (a lecturer or other academic faculty member) gives individual attention to the students.

state boarding schools

Study book

A state boarding school is one where you pay for boarding and the education is free. The government pays for the education as it would at any other state school in England.

Admission to state boarding schools in the UK is limited to children who are nationals of the UK and are eligible to hold a full UK passport, or those who are nationals of other European Union countries or those who have the right of residence in the UK. Please note that the holding of a BN(O) passport does not make the child eligible for a state boarding school in the UK.

F E Colleges

students at college

An FE college is an institution that provides education for those above school age (age 16). There are many types of FE colleges including, sixth form colleges, specialist colleges and adult education institutes. FE Colleges are state run and as such those members of the EU joining can benefit from free education. There is also a competitive fee structure available for non-EU international students.

pathway courses at university

university students on campus

If you need to improve your English language or study skills before attending a UK university, pathway providers offer unique foundation courses which often lead to direct degree-level entry upon completion. There are several private companies who operate Foundation and Diploma programmes on the campuses of UK universities. Often these courses offer accelerated access to undergraduate degrees.


mortar boards

The UK is one of the world's most popular destination for students from overseas. In fact, more than 400,000 international students enrol each year.International students considering an education in the UK have a choice of over 140 universities and higher education institutions, each offering a great range of tertiary qualifications that will be recognised the world over. Students join a 3 year undergraduate programme or a 1 year postgraduate course.

UK university placement

university students throwing mortar boards

For expert advice on UK and US university entry, Bright World has teamed up with Education Advisers Ltd, whose experienced consultants offer a full range of Higher Education services for international students. These range from complimentary advice on the best University Foundation courses, to bespoke Oxbridge and Medical School coaching and mentorship programmes. You can visit their websites at www.universityadvice.co.uk or www.best-schools.co.uk or call +44 1622 813870 for further information.

guardianship and school placement advice

Boarding school guardianship.

If your child is attending a boarding school you will need to nominate a UK guardian. Bright World can help you with this service.

university guardianship

If you are under 18 when you start university you will need to nominate a UK-based adult or guardian. Bright World has a programme especially for you.

boarding school placement

If you are looking for a place at a UK boarding school Bright World can help you.

enquire today

Bright world uk schools placement service.

Enquire today and receive our free Guide to British Education

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Bright world guardianship programme, bright world boarding school placements.

write a newspaper report changes made by the british in education system

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Breaking the mold: why the british education system needs to change.


Are you curious about the British education system and its impact on the country’s history and development? While this system has been around for centuries, it’s been receiving a lot of criticism in recent years. Many argue that it’s too rigid and inflexible, with a heavy focus on traditional subjects and rote learning that fails to prepare students for the modern world. And sadly, the criticism is true.

The British Education System  Classroom 100 years ago

Imagine, nothing changed in our classroom for over a century, that’s a shame! What’s surprising is, though obsolete, the UK still ranks 7th in the world on the list of the best education systems in the world.

In this article, we’ll delve deep into the British education system, examining its structure, strengths, and weaknesses. We’ll explore some of the most common criticisms and discuss the need for change in the face of the demands of the digital age, the labor market, and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Along the way, we’ll also gather insights from influential figures in the education sector and beyond and hear from successful individuals who have taken unconventional paths to education.

Overview of the British Education System

It’s worth keeping in mind that systems that have been deeply rooted in society take time to change. A prime example of this is the education system, which was designed during the industrial age with the primary goal of producing factory workers.

Even today, we see remnants of this industrial mentality in schools, with mass production and control still being prioritised over individualised learning experiences.

Dating back to the late 3rd century, lies the foundation of the first monastic schools that marked the start of what would become the British education system. Fast forward to the 20th century, and the system evolved dramatically, adapting to the changing needs of society while maintaining a strong global reputation. Its longevity is impressive, with the Sorbonne University in Paris founded in 1150, the University of Oxford established in ~1096, and Cambridge University established in 1209. However, things took a U-turn in the 21st century.

It’s interesting to note that the education system’s massification is a recent phenomenon, starting in the 19th century with the introduction of state-funded schools and continuing with the creation of the National Curriculum in 1988. The current education system’s roots lie in teaching grammar, logic, and rhetoric to promote literacy and religious values. Without internet access, this was the best way to enforce knowledge and prepare young people for university. However, as time passed and knowledge grew, the education system evolved to incorporate more scientific research and reasoning. As generations grew more knowledgeable and literate, the influence of religion waned, and scientific research and reasoning flourished. With the internet reaching every household, there was a shift that sparked rapid technological advancements, forever transforming the world we live in today, but unfortunately, the education system failed to keep up! Despite its successes, the British education system faces a time of change. The demands of the digital age, the changes in the labor market, and the COVID-19 pandemic have highlighted the need for a more adaptable and inclusive education system.

Criticisms of the British Education System

Picture this: a centuries-old education system, highly regarded worldwide but grappling with modern-day challenges. That’s the current education system for you! Let’s dive into the depths:

First off, the lack of diversity and inclusivity is a glaring issue. Only a small percentage of students at top UK universities come from disadvantaged backgrounds. According to a study by Pearson , four out of five UK teachers think that more can be done to celebrate different cultures, people, and experiences in UK education. According to a survey, only 36% of parents in the UK agree that the education offered in schools today is inclusive of all students. The lack of diversity in further education is also highlighted by a report by the Chartered Management Institute, which found that the proportion of Black, Asian, and ethnically diverse college leaders decreased from 13% in 2017 to roughly 5% or 6% in 2018 .

Moreover, the system’s focus on traditional subjects and rote learning has come under scrutiny. While mathematics and science are crucial, so too are creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. In fact, the World Economic Forum found that almost all jobs will require complex problem-solving skills by 2025. So, it’s high time we rethink our approach!

Another sticking point is the British education system’s over-reliance on exams and standardised testing . While they can offer valuable insights, these tests also contribute to increased stress and anxiety, a narrow curriculum, and a lack of emphasis on real-world skills. When the intelligence of different students is measured against a single yardstick that is incapable of adjusting its parameters depending on the strengths and weaknesses of different students, it leads to lower self-esteem and a lack of confidence in the “low performers”.

The British Education System  lacks in measuring important skills

Lastly, there’s a notable lack of vocational education opportunities . With vocational skills in high demand, it’s crucial to reevaluate the system’s priorities and provide more pathways for success. The aim of education should be to impart life skills, which unfortunately one learns in on-the-job training, if one lands a job! Only 10% of employees in the survey said that the skills they acquired in their schools and universities were actually put to use in their jobs. 25% said that it was their job training that helped them acquire skills that were actually needed to survive the fight.

As the digital age progresses, the obsolescence of the British education system has become more evident. The rise of technology demands new skills like digital literacy, critical thinking, and creativity, but the current system struggles to prepare students for these challenges, leading to a skills gap.

To top it off, the COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed the need for a flexible and adaptable education system. The abrupt shift to remote learning revealed the limitations of traditional classroom-based models and the digital divide, where disadvantaged students were left behind due to insufficient access to technology and resources.

So, as the internet continues to transform the way we learn and work, it’s high time we reconsider the very foundations of the British education system and adapt it to the demands of the 21st century. After all, the future of education lies in personalisation, digitalisation, and lifelong learning!

Age-old traditions

We need to stop here and ask ourselves: Are our education systems training students to be compliant and conformist?

It’s clear that modern society values creativity, critical thinking skills, and the ability to collaborate with others. However, our current education system often falls short in developing these skills, with its lack of autonomy and control limiting students’ potential.

I have already stressed the importance of complex problem-solving skills. Yet, the emphasis on memorisation and rote learning in our current education system limits students’ ability to think critically and creatively.

The system defines a generic set of knowledge that all children must know, and exams are the only thing that is valued and measured. No, no. Let me correct myself here, scores are the only thing that is valued. If you are a top scorer with absolutely no common sense or will to learn and educate yourself, you are still regarded as ‘the best’ and vice versa, you stand no chance in our education system. The hypocrisy is so deeply rooted in every person who has been part of this education system that parents and teachers are both blinded by the outcome of this mad rat race. No one pauses, even for a second, to reflect on the path taken. The constant hammering of subjects, rattaafication (mugging up) and perfect scores has made Jack a dull boy. As a result, there’s little room for passions and interests in the current education system, which undermines children’s natural curiosity and love for learning. The current grading system is viewed as a poor communicator of student learning and does not provide meaningful feedback for improvement or growth.

Also read: The Tug Of War Between Indian Culture & Western Influence: Navigating The Past, Present, & Future

Furthermore, the current system is demotivating and boring for children, leading to decreased interest and engagement in the learning process. The segregation of students into different sections, solely on the basis of merit and differentiating the amenities and opportunities provided to them based on their sections leaves quite an impression on those young minds. Forcing them to believe, that they are not good enough.

The current educational system’s lack of autonomy, according to a study by the University of Rochester, makes the curriculum boring. Autonomy is incredibly important for children, and without it, they’re less likely to be interested in what they’re learning. Have you ever observed how toddlers learn to eat? or walk? I am sure none of us remembers the days when we were toddlers, but observe a baby if you get a chance.

A child learns to eat when they are left by themselves. When you believe in them and give them autonomy and space, that is when they learn how to hold a spoon or how to walk without support. Sure, there are spills at times, and they fall down over and over again, but they learn.

Creativity is just as important as literacy in education and should be treated with equal status. Children are born with an innate ability to express themselves through art, music, and other creative outlets, but unfortunately, we often lose this skill as we grow older and become more educated. The current education system has a hierarchy that prioritises math and science over art and music, which can lead to a lack of creativity in students. Mistakes are a necessary part of the learning process and should not be stigmatised or punished. As we grow older, we forget that learning is a process that comes as a result of those initial failures. That is the basic nature of learning. It requires you to make mistakes, but as we grow older, we leave no room for error, so we never actually learn!

The education system was initially designed to meet the needs of industrialization, where conformity was valued over individualism. However, in the 21st century, the focus should be on increasing choice and providing individualised support to help children flourish in their areas of interest.

Finland is already considering abandoning teaching by subject and adopting teaching by phenomenon. Students at the University College of London can earn a degree in Arts and Sciences, which is an interdisciplinary major. What? Arts and science together? yess. Interdisciplinary majors are becoming more popular as traditional subjects are phased out.

Standardised education may have once been the solution, but to say that it is no longer relevant is putting it mildly, and it is only a band-aid fix for a broken system. According to Daniel Pink (A Whole New Mind, 2005) , the results of those tests are in stark contrast to the skills we currently require. These abilities include design, story, symphony, empathy, play, and meaning, for instance.

What is needed?

Eliminating letter grades is foremost to reduce pressure and refocus students’ and professors’ energies on learning for the sake of learning. Instead of passive learning that emphasises memorisation and regurgitation of facts, the focus should be on active learning that encourages students to engage with the material and apply it in meaningful ways. This will be achieved by replacing the teach-and-abandon methods of instruction with more cohesive and integrated approaches to presentation.

standardised tests in The British Education System

Moreover, we need to move away from standardised tests as the sole measure of success. The outcomes of these tests measure only a small part of what we want our kids to learn, and by focusing on them, we’re narrowing the curriculum. In the global world today, it’s easy to outsource jobs to someone who is willing to do the same job just as fast for less money. Therefore, we need creative people who can think differently. We should all remember this quote by Andrea Schleicher by heart.

Schools have to prepare students for jobs that have not yet been created, technologies that have not yet been invented and problems that we don’t know will arise . Andrea Schleicher

To achieve this, the education system must focus on learning as a social and collaborative endeavour, emphasising communication, collaboration, and teamwork as critical skills for success in the 21st century. For instance, assigning homework for the sake of it is of no use at all. The focus should be on quality over quantity, and homework should be designed to reinforce concepts learned in class, promote self-reflection and self-directed learning, and encourage collaboration and creativity.

The British Education System  traditional libraries

Traditional libraries that only contain books and chess tables are becoming obsolete. I had the chance to live in Helsinki, the Finnish capital, for a year. Therefore, having experienced the essence of their library, I can safely say, that our school libraries in India are dead in spirit.

New age library Helsinki Oodi

A 21st-century library should be a place where students and staff can come in to relax, read, get advice, access powerful devices, and learn new skills. All of which were available even in the Finnish community libraries. Just imagine the ones in their educational institutions. When I was in school, I used to hate those boring library periods. The lighting of the room, the poorly decorated vicinity, and obsolete, torn books would repulse me instead. I could never imagine a library could be such a lively and energetic place that offers so much more than core academics. This 21st-century learning space should give people an equal chance to use these devices and access information.

There is also a pressing need to change the way our classrooms are structured and function. Instead of grouping students based on their birth year, a more holistic approach is needed. One of the major limitations of the current education system is that it doesn’t consider the differences in how we learn. Some students are fast learners, some are good at math and science; some are good at arts and commerce, some are good at academics; and some are good at sport and music. There is a need for a personalised curriculum rather than a generalised one so that the students who are weak in language can be brought to par with those who are good at it. Similarly, for other subjects, we need to think creatively and come up with more out of the box and sustainable solutions.

But what about the skills that students will need in the future? According to Denning and Brown, “The half-life of a learned skill is 5-years” – this means that much of what you learned 10 years ago is obsolete and half of what you learned 5 years ago is irrelevant. With the world becoming more digitised, different skills are needed, particularly human skills such as collaboration, negotiation, and adapting to change.

Also read: With Adversity Comes Opportunity

So what’s the solution? Apprenticeships and workplace programmes could be a better option for students interested in tech-based careers. They are more immediate, practical, and relevant. In fact, they are the perfect environment to, as Sugata Mitra said, “let learning happen” with colleagues of all ages and levels of experience. The path of collaborative learning is what we should be eyeing.

We’re moving into an era where unlearning is as important as learning. Coming back to the psychology of a toddler, being playful lies at the very heart of learning, in order for us to build a new mindset. The imagined world connects kids in the heart of the deep play. We need to expand the notion of literacy to include visual, musical, procedural, and cinematic fields. The focus should be on developing fully rounded young people with confidence and self-esteem, rather than just teaching them to pass exams. And we need to start right from the beginning because our brain’s capacity to adapt decreases with age.

brain development

Engagement is the most important factor in education, not grades, test scores, or graduation rates. Sadly, the current education system is failing badly at it! The current education system is outdated and fails to meet the needs of students. The Mastery Transcript Consortium is working on a better way to measure learning, motivation, and engagement through a new transcript model.

It’s time to learn from the best. The Finnish education system has a philosophy-based approach to education, with few standardised tests and a focus on individualised learning. Teachers are heavily involved in the Finnish education system, with a focus on collaboration and group work. The system values equity and inclusivity, with support provided for students with diverse needs. Maybe if we had still been in the Gurukul system, we would have been teaching the West! The Gurukul system emphasised experiential learning and a holistic approach to education that includes physical education and the arts.

Degrees are becoming less valuable due to the explosion of population and an oversupply of degree holders. Intelligence is not just about having ideas, but also about the interaction of different things. Education should prepare students for the unpredictable future, where skills like collaboration, creativity, and adaptability are becoming increasingly important. The education system is the same everywhere, with a focus on academics and little attention paid to the body or physical education. However, there is a growing movement towards incorporating physical activity and healthy lifestyles into the education system to ensure the overall well-being of students.

Also read: Bollywood’s Reality Check: Regional Cinema Takes Center Stage

The current education system is like a one-size-fits-all mould that doesn’t take into account your unique interests and strengths. The truth is, each child is unique and different in their own way, but the current education system doesn’t always help them find and develop their passions. In fact, the education system often fails to address the most important questions in a child’s life, such as “Who am I?” and “What do I want to do with my life?” Instead, it places a heavy emphasis on exams and standardized testing, leaving little room for creativity, exploration, and self-discovery.

The education system needs to evolve and adapt to meet the changing needs of students in the modern world. Creativity, engagement, and innovation should be given equal status to academics, and alternative education models and partnerships can help to create positive change. The Finnish education system provides an example of a successful philosophy-based approach that values equity, inclusivity, and creativity, and the ancient Gurukul system provides a promising model for holistic education.

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  • British education system meant to create 'servant class' in India, changes still needed: PM Modi

British education system meant to create 'servant class' in India, changes still needed: PM Modi

British education system meant to create 'servant class' in India, changes still needed: PM Modi

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write a newspaper report changes made by the british in education system

Three agents of modern education in India

  • The British Government (East India Company)
  • Christian missionaries
  • Indian intellectuals and reformers

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write a newspaper report changes made by the british in education system

Development of Modern Education

  • The company wanted some educated Indians who could assist them in the administration of the land.
  • Also, they wanted to understand the local customs and laws well.
  • For this purpose, Warren Hastings established the Calcutta Madrassa in 1781 for the teaching of Muslim law.
  • In 1791, a Sanskrit College was started in Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan for the study of Hindu philosophy and laws.
  • The missionaries supported the spread of Western education in India primarily for their proselytising activities. They established many schools with education only being a means to an end which was Christianising and ‘civilising’ the natives.
  • The Baptist missionary William Carey had come to India in 1793 and by 1800 there was a Baptist Mission in Serampore, Bengal, and also a number of primary schools there and in nearby areas.
  • The Indian reformers believed that to keep up with times, a modern educational system was needed to spread rational thinking and scientific principles.
  • The Charter Act of 1813 was the first step towards education being made an objective of the government.
  • The act sanctioned a sum of Rs.1 lakh towards the education of Indians in British ruled India. This act also gave an impetus to the missionaries who were given official permission to come to India.
  • But there was a split in the government over what kind of education was to be offered to the Indians.
  • The orientalists preferred Indians to be given traditional Indian education. Some others, however, wanted Indians to be educated in the western style of education and be taught western subjects.
  • There was also another difficulty regarding the language of instruction. Some wanted the use of Indian languages (called vernaculars) while others preferred English.
  • Due to these issues, the sum of money allotted was not given until 1823 when the General Committee of Public Instruction decided to impart oriental education.
  • In 1835, it was decided that western sciences and literature would be imparted to Indians through the medium of English by Lord William Bentinck’s government.
  • Bentinck had appointed Thomas Babington Macaulay as the Chairman of the General Committee of Public Instruction.
  • Macaulay was an ardent anglicist who had absolute contempt for Indian learning of any kind. He was supported by Reverend Alexander Duff, JR Colvin, etc.
  • On the side of the orientalists were James Prinsep, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, etc.
  • Macaulay minutes refer to his proposal of education for the Indians.
  • English education should be imparted in place of traditional Indian learning because the oriental culture was ‘defective’ and ‘unholy’.
  • He believed in education a few upper and middle-class students.
  • In the course of time, education would trickle down to the masses. This was called the infiltration theory.
  • He wished to create a class of Indians who were Indian in colour and appearance but English in taste and affiliation.
  • In 1835, the Elphinstone College (Bombay) and the Calcutta Medical College were established.

write a newspaper report changes made by the british in education system

  • Sir Charles Wood was the President of the Board of Control of the company in 1854 when he sent a despatch to the then Governor-General of India, Lord Dalhousie.
  • This is called the ‘Magna Carta of English education in India.’
  • Regularise education system from the primary to the university levels.
  • Indians were to be educated in English and their native language.
  • The education system was to be set up in every province.
  • Every district should have at least one government school.
  • Affiliated private schools could be granted aids.
  • Education of women should be emphasised.
  • Universities of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay were set up by 1857.
  • University of Punjab – 1882; University of Allahabad – 1887
  • This despatch asked the government to take up the responsibility of education of the people.
  • Although there were a few Englishmen who wanted to spread education for its own sake, the government was chiefly concerned only with its own concerns.
  • There was a huge demand for clerks and other administrative roles in the company’s functioning.
  • It was cheaper to get Indians rather than Englishmen from England for these jobs. This was the prime motive.
  • No doubt it spread western education among Indians, but the rate of literacy was abysmally low during British rule.
  • The state of women education was pathetic. This was because the government did not want to displease the orthodox nature of Indians and also because women could not generally be employed as clerks.
  • In 1911, the illiteracy rate in British India was 94%. In 1921, it was 92%.
  • Scientific and technical education was ignored by the British government.

UPSC Questions about British Education Policy in India

Who introduced british education system in india, how did the british rule affect the education system in india.

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Hi Divya UPSC CSAT is a combination of different sections as you can refer in CSAT Syllabus . Questions from Data Interpretation and Basic Numeracy of class 10th level are asked in this exam, considering the Maths subject. The number of questions on Maths problems are balanced in a way, where a candidate with optimum practice, can score well. You can check links given below to help you with CSAT preparation: 1. CSAT Mock Test 2. CSAT Questions

Sir/mam there are only four topics like ancient medival and modern history and geography as well there is no data available regarding political science and economics etc. So where can I get the economics notes

Hi, 1. Polity Notes for UPSC 2. Economy Notes for UPSC

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