- What are citations and why should I use them?
- When should I use a citation?
- Why are there so many citation styles?
- Which citation style should I use?
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Citing Sources: What are citations and why should I use them?
What is a citation.
Citations are a way of giving credit when certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again-- it provides an important roadmap to your research process. Whenever you use sources such as books, journals or websites in your research, you must give credit to the original author by citing the source.
Why do researchers cite?
Scholarship is a conversation and scholars use citations not only to give credit to original creators and thinkers, but also to add strength and authority to their own work. By citing their sources, scholars are placing their work in a specific context to show where they “fit” within the larger conversation. Citations are also a great way to leave a trail intended to help others who may want to explore the conversation or use the sources in their own work.
In short, citations
(1) give credit
(2) add strength and authority to your work
(3) place your work in a specific context
(4) leave a trail for other scholars
"Good citations should reveal your sources, not conceal them. They should honeslty reflect the research you conducted." (Lipson 4)
Lipson, Charles. "Why Cite?" Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles--MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More . Chicago: U of Chicago, 2006. Print.
What does a citation look like?
Different subject disciplines call for citation information to be written in very specific order, capitalization, and punctuation. There are therefore many different style formats. Three popular citation formats are MLA Style (for humanities articles) and APA or Chicago (for social sciences articles).
MLA style (print journal article):
Whisenant, Warren A. "How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX." Sex Roles Vol. 49.3 (2003): 179-182.
APA style (print journal article):
Whisenant, W. A. (2003) How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX. Sex Roles , 49 (3), 179-182.
Chicago style (print journal article):
Whisenant, Warren A. "How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX." Sex Roles 49, no. 3 (2003): 179-182.
No matter which style you use, all citations require the same basic information:
- Author or Creator
- Container (e.g., Journal or magazine, website, edited book)
- Date of creation or publication
You are most likely to have easy access to all of your citation information when you find it in the first place. Take note of this information up front, and it will be much easier to cite it effectively later.
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Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles
Published on June 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 7, 2022.
A citation style is a set of guidelines on how to cite sources in your academic writing . You always need a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize a source to avoid plagiarism . How you present these citations depends on the style you follow. Scribbr’s citation generator can help!
Different styles are set by different universities, academic associations, and publishers, often published in an official handbook with in-depth instructions and examples.
There are many different citation styles, but they typically use one of three basic approaches: parenthetical citations , numerical citations, or note citations.
- Chicago (Turabian) author-date
CSE citation-name or citation-sequence
- Chicago (Turabian) notes and bibliography
Table of contents
Types of citation: parenthetical, note, numerical, which citation style should i use, parenthetical citation styles, numerical citation styles, note citation styles, frequently asked questions about citation styles.
The clearest identifying characteristic of any citation style is how the citations in the text are presented. There are three main approaches:
- Parenthetical citations: You include identifying details of the source in parentheses in the text—usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if relevant ( author-date ). Sometimes the publication date is omitted ( author-page ).
- Numerical citations: You include a number in brackets or in superscript, which corresponds to an entry in your numbered reference list.
- Note citations: You include a full citation in a footnote or endnote, which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.
Citation styles also differ in terms of how you format the reference list or bibliography entries themselves (e.g., capitalization, order of information, use of italics). And many style guides also provide guidance on more general issues like text formatting, punctuation, and numbers.
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In most cases, your university, department, or instructor will tell you which citation style you need to follow in your writing. If you’re not sure, it’s best to consult your institution’s guidelines or ask someone. If you’re submitting to a journal, they will usually require a specific style.
Sometimes, the choice of citation style may be left up to you. In those cases, you can base your decision on which citation styles are commonly used in your field. Try reading other articles from your discipline to see how they cite their sources, or consult the table below.
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) recommends citing your sources using Chicago author-date style . AAA style doesn’t have its own separate rules. This style is used in the field of anthropology.
APA Style is defined by the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . It was designed for use in psychology, but today it’s widely used across various disciplines, especially in the social sciences.
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The citation style of the American Political Science Association (APSA) is used mainly in the field of political science.
The citation style of the American Sociological Association (ASA) is used primarily in the discipline of sociology.
Chicago author-date style is one of the two citation styles presented in the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). It’s used mainly in the sciences and social sciences.
The citation style of the Council of Science Editors (CSE) is used in various scientific disciplines. It includes multiple options for citing your sources, including the name-year system.
Harvard style is often used in the field of economics. It is also very widely used across disciplines in UK universities. There are various versions of Harvard style defined by different universities—it’s not a style with one definitive style guide.
Check out Scribbr’s Harvard Reference Generator
MLA style is the official style of the Modern Language Association, defined in the MLA Handbook (9th edition). It’s widely used across various humanities disciplines. Unlike most parenthetical citation styles, it’s author-page rather than author-date.
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The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides guidelines for a citation style using numbers in superscript or italics in the text, corresponding to entries in a numbered reference list at the end. It is used in chemistry.
The American Medical Association ( AMA ) provides guidelines for a numerical citation style using superscript numbers in the text, which correspond to entries in a numbered reference list. It is used in the field of medicine.
CSE style includes multiple options for citing your sources, including the citation-name and citation-sequence systems. Your references are listed alphabetically in the citation-name system; in the citation-sequence system, they appear in the order in which you cited them.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) provides guidelines for citing your sources with IEEE in-text citations that consist of numbers enclosed in brackets, corresponding to entries in a numbered reference list. This style is used in various engineering and IT disciplines.
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) citation style is defined in Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition).
Vancouver style is also used in various medical disciplines. As with Harvard style, a lot of institutions and publications have their own versions of Vancouver—it doesn’t have one fixed style guide.
The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is the main style guide for legal citations in the US. It’s widely used in law, and also when legal materials need to be cited in other disciplines.
Chicago notes and bibliography
Chicago notes and bibliography is one of the two citation styles presented in the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). It’s used mainly in the humanities.
The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities ( OSCOLA ) is the main legal citation style in the UK (similar to Bluebook for the US).
There are many different citation styles used across different academic disciplines, but they fall into three basic approaches to citation:
- Parenthetical citations : Including identifying details of the source in parentheses —usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if available ( author-date ). The publication date is occasionally omitted ( author-page ).
- Numerical citations: Including a number in brackets or superscript, corresponding to an entry in your numbered reference list.
- Note citations: Including a full citation in a footnote or endnote , which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
A scientific citation style is a system of source citation that is used in scientific disciplines. Some commonly used scientific citation styles are:
- Chicago author-date , CSE , and Harvard , used across various sciences
- ACS , used in chemistry
- AMA , NLM , and Vancouver , used in medicine and related disciplines
- AAA , APA , and ASA , commonly used in the social sciences
APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.
Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.
MLA Style is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / How to Cite Sources
How to Cite Sources
Here is a complete list for how to cite sources. Most of these guides present citation guidance and examples in MLA, APA, and Chicago.
If you’re looking for general information on MLA or APA citations , the EasyBib Writing Center was designed for you! It has articles on what’s needed in an MLA in-text citation , how to format an APA paper, what an MLA annotated bibliography is, making an MLA works cited page, and much more!
MLA Format Citation Examples
The Modern Language Association created the MLA Style, currently in its 9th edition, to provide researchers with guidelines for writing and documenting scholarly borrowings. Most often used in the humanities, MLA style (or MLA format ) has been adopted and used by numerous other disciplines, in multiple parts of the world.
MLA provides standard rules to follow so that most research papers are formatted in a similar manner. This makes it easier for readers to comprehend the information. The MLA in-text citation guidelines, MLA works cited standards, and MLA annotated bibliography instructions provide scholars with the information they need to properly cite sources in their research papers, articles, and assignments.
- Book Chapter
- Conference Paper
- Google Images
- Kindle Book
- Memorial Inscription
- Museum Exhibit
- Painting or Artwork
- PowerPoint Presentation
- Sheet Music
- Thesis or Dissertation
- YouTube Video
APA Format Citation Examples
The American Psychological Association created the APA citation style in 1929 as a way to help psychologists, anthropologists, and even business managers establish one common way to cite sources and present content.
APA is used when citing sources for academic articles such as journals, and is intended to help readers better comprehend content, and to avoid language bias wherever possible. The APA style (or APA format ) is now in its 7th edition, and provides citation style guides for virtually any type of resource.
Chicago Style Citation Examples
The Chicago/Turabian style of citing sources is generally used when citing sources for humanities papers, and is best known for its requirement that writers place bibliographic citations at the bottom of a page (in Chicago-format footnotes ) or at the end of a paper (endnotes).
The Turabian and Chicago citation styles are almost identical, but the Turabian style is geared towards student published papers such as theses and dissertations, while the Chicago style provides guidelines for all types of publications. This is why you’ll commonly see Chicago style and Turabian style presented together. The Chicago Manual of Style is currently in its 17th edition, and Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is in its 8th edition.
Citing Specific Sources or Events
- Declaration of Independence
- Gettysburg Address
- Martin Luther King Jr. Speech
- President Obama’s Farewell Address
- President Trump’s Inauguration Speech
- White House Press Briefing
- Citing Archived Contributors
- Citing a Blog
- Citing a Book Chapter
- Citing a Source in a Foreign Language
- Citing an Image
- Citing a Song
- Citing Special Contributors
- Citing a Translated Article
- Citing a Tweet
6 Interesting Citation Facts
The world of citations may seem cut and dry, but there’s more to them than just specific capitalization rules, MLA in-text citations , and other formatting specifications. Citations have been helping researches document their sources for hundreds of years, and are a great way to learn more about a particular subject area.
Ever wonder what sets all the different styles apart, or how they came to be in the first place? Read on for some interesting facts about citations!
1. There are Over 7,000 Different Citation Styles
You may be familiar with MLA and APA citation styles, but there are actually thousands of citation styles used for all different academic disciplines all across the world. Deciding which one to use can be difficult, so be sure to ask you instructor which one you should be using for your next paper.
2. Some Citation Styles are Named After People
While a majority of citation styles are named for the specific organizations that publish them (i.e. APA is published by the American Psychological Association, and MLA format is named for the Modern Language Association), some are actually named after individuals. The most well-known example of this is perhaps Turabian style, named for Kate L. Turabian, an American educator and writer. She developed this style as a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style in order to present a more concise set of rules to students.
3. There are Some Really Specific and Uniquely Named Citation Styles
How specific can citation styles get? The answer is very. For example, the “Flavour and Fragrance Journal” style is based on a bimonthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1985 by John Wiley & Sons. It publishes original research articles, reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavor and fragrance. Another example is “Nordic Pulp and Paper Research,” a style used by an international scientific magazine covering science and technology for the areas of wood or bio-mass constituents.
4. More citations were created on EasyBib.com in the first quarter of 2018 than there are people in California.
The US Census Bureau estimates that approximately 39.5 million people live in the state of California. Meanwhile, about 43 million citations were made on EasyBib from January to March of 2018. That’s a lot of citations.
5. “Citations” is a Word With a Long History
The word “citations” can be traced back literally thousands of years to the Latin word “citare” meaning “to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite.” The word then took on its more modern meaning and relevance to writing papers in the 1600s, where it became known as the “act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc.”
6. Citation Styles are Always Changing
The concept of citations always stays the same. It is a means of preventing plagiarism and demonstrating where you relied on outside sources. The specific style rules, however, can and do change regularly. For example, in 2018 alone, 46 new citation styles were introduced , and 106 updates were made to exiting styles. At EasyBib, we are always on the lookout for ways to improve our styles and opportunities to add new ones to our list.
Why Citations Matter
Here are the ways accurate citations can help your students achieve academic success, and how you can answer the dreaded question, “why should I cite my sources?”
They Give Credit to the Right People
Citing their sources makes sure that the reader can differentiate the student’s original thoughts from those of other researchers. Not only does this make sure that the sources they use receive proper credit for their work, it ensures that the student receives deserved recognition for their unique contributions to the topic. Whether the student is citing in MLA format , APA format , or any other style, citations serve as a natural way to place a student’s work in the broader context of the subject area, and serve as an easy way to gauge their commitment to the project.
They Provide Hard Evidence of Ideas
Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to their idea means that the student is working on a well-researched and respected subject. Citing sources that back up their claim creates room for fact-checking and further research . And, if they can cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why they believe that that viewpoint is wrong by again citing credible sources, the student is well on their way to winning over the reader and cementing their point of view.
They Promote Originality and Prevent Plagiarism
The point of research projects is not to regurgitate information that can already be found elsewhere. We have Google for that! What the student’s project should aim to do is promote an original idea or a spin on an existing idea, and use reliable sources to promote that idea. Copying or directly referencing a source without proper citation can lead to not only a poor grade, but accusations of academic dishonesty. By citing their sources regularly and accurately, students can easily avoid the trap of plagiarism , and promote further research on their topic.
They Create Better Researchers
By researching sources to back up and promote their ideas, students are becoming better researchers without even knowing it! Each time a new source is read or researched, the student is becoming more engaged with the project and is developing a deeper understanding of the subject area. Proper citations demonstrate a breadth of the student’s reading and dedication to the project itself. By creating citations, students are compelled to make connections between their sources and discern research patterns. Each time they complete this process, they are helping themselves become better researchers and writers overall.
When is the Right Time to Start Making Citations?
Make in-text/parenthetical citations as you need them.
As you are writing your paper, be sure to include references within the text that correspond with references in a works cited or bibliography. These are usually called in-text citations or parenthetical citations in MLA and APA formats. The most effective time to complete these is directly after you have made your reference to another source. For instance, after writing the line from Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities : “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…,” you would include a citation like this (depending on your chosen citation style):
This signals to the reader that you have referenced an outside source. What’s great about this system is that the in-text citations serve as a natural list for all of the citations you have made in your paper, which will make completing the works cited page a whole lot easier. After you are done writing, all that will be left for you to do is scan your paper for these references, and then build a works cited page that includes a citation for each one.
Need help creating an MLA works cited page ? Try the MLA format generator on EasyBib.com! We also have a guide on how to format an APA reference page .
2. Understand the General Formatting Rules of Your Citation Style Before You Start Writing
While reading up on paper formatting may not sound exciting, being aware of how your paper should look early on in the paper writing process is super important. Citation styles can dictate more than just the appearance of the citations themselves, but rather can impact the layout of your paper as a whole, with specific guidelines concerning margin width, title treatment, and even font size and spacing. Knowing how to organize your paper before you start writing will ensure that you do not receive a low grade for something as trivial as forgetting a hanging indent.
Don’t know where to start? Here’s a formatting guide on APA format .
3. Double-check All of Your Outside Sources for Relevance and Trustworthiness First
Collecting outside sources that support your research and specific topic is a critical step in writing an effective paper. But before you run to the library and grab the first 20 books you can lay your hands on, keep in mind that selecting a source to include in your paper should not be taken lightly. Before you proceed with using it to backup your ideas, run a quick Internet search for it and see if other scholars in your field have written about it as well. Check to see if there are book reviews about it or peer accolades. If you spot something that seems off to you, you may want to consider leaving it out of your work. Doing this before your start making citations can save you a ton of time in the long run.
Finished with your paper? It may be time to run it through a grammar and plagiarism checker , like the one offered by EasyBib Plus. If you’re just looking to brush up on the basics, our grammar guides are ready anytime you are.
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Citation styles: apa, mla, chicago, turabian, ieee.
- APA 7th Edition
- Turabian 9th
- Writing & Citing Help
- Understanding Plagiarism
Listed below are a few quick links to resources that will aid you in citing sources.
- Sign up for a Mendeley, EndNote, or Zotero training class.
- APA 7th Edition Published in October 2019. Visit this page for links to resources and examples.
- MLA Need help with citing MLA style? Find information here along with links to books in PittCat and free online resources.
- Chicago/Turabian Need help with citing Chicago/Turabian style? Find examples here along with links to the online style manual and free online resources.
Getting Started: How to use this guide
This LibGuide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper.
There are different styles which format the information differently. In each tab, you will find descriptions of each citation style featured in this guide along with links to online resources for citing and a few examples.
What is a citation and citation style?
A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that you utilized to support your research. It can also be used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism. Typically, a citation can include the author's name, date, location of the publishing company, journal title, or DOI (Digital Object Identifier).
A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.
How to do I choose a citation style?
There are many different ways of citing resources from your research. The citation style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. For example:
- APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences
- MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities
- Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts
*You will need to consult with your professor to determine what is required in your specific course.
Click the links below to find descriptions of each style along with a sample of major in-text and bibliographic citations, links to books in PittCat, online citation manuals, and other free online resources.
- APA Citation Style
- MLA Citation Style
- Chicago/Turabian Citation Style
- Tools for creating bibliographies (CItation Managers)
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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most frequently used within the social sciences, in order to cite various sources. This APA Citation Guide provides the general format for in-text citations and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed.
In APA style, two citations are used to cite a source:
- A short citation used in the text (called the in-text citation ).
- A full citation (called the reference ) in the reference list at the end of a paper.
The in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The in-text citation lets the reader know that the information came from the cited source. The reference list entry provides complete details of a source and is shown at the end of a document.
In order to properly cite a source in APA style, you must have both citation types in your paper. Every in-text citation has a reference list entry. Every reference list entry has at least one (maybe more) corresponding in-text citation.
The basic elements needed for an in-text citation are the author’s surname and the publication year . Sometimes, page numbers are also included, especially when quotes are mentioned in the text. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a narrative citation or a parenthetical citation.
Narrative citations are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, narrative citations use the author’s name in the text and the publication year is enclosed in parenthesis after the name. An example of a narrative citation for one author is given below:
Barbarin (2013) examined socioemotional learning in African boys.
Parenthetical citations add the author’s name and the publication year at the end of the sentence in parenthesis. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:
Inhibition and working memory in young children were studied extensively (Aase, 2014).
When are page numbers are included?
Page numbers are referred to within in-text citations when quotes are used. Examples of both narrative citations and parenthetical citations are given below.
Ahmed (2004, p. 44)
Ahmed (2004, pp. 53–56)
(Ahmed, 2004, p. 44)
(Ahmed, 2004, pp. 53–56)
Examples of in-text citations
Here are a few examples of in-text citations for a different number of authors:
Use the surname of the author in in-text citations. Use a comma before the publication year in parenthetical citations.
Separate the author surnames with an “and” in narrative citations. Use an ampersand symbol (&) in parenthetical citations.
Popescu and Pennacchiotti (2010)
(Popescu & Pennacchiotti, 2010)
Three or more authors
Use the first author surname name followed by et al.
van Dijck et al. (2018)
(van Dijck et al., 2018)
Treat the group author similar to how you would treat author names.
Auger Collaboration (2003)
(Auger Collaboration, 2018)
If there is no author for the source, use the source title in place of the author’s name. In general, sources with no author appear as parenthetical citations.
When you add such in-text citations, you will either italicize the text or place it in quotations. If the source title is italicized in the reference list entry, italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title is not italicized, place it in quotation marks.
( Nothing here , 1997)
Parenthetical, journal article:
(“Examination of parrotfish impact on coral reefs,” 2018)
Reference list entries
Reference list entries are also called full citations. There are four main details that most reference list entries have:
- The author field.
- The publication year.
- The title of the work ( italicized or in “quotation marks”).
- The source from where the reference can be obtained (e.g., URL, DOI, etc.).
Depending on the source type, you will also need additional details like volume number, publication title, contributors, medium, etc.
Examples of reference list entries
Below are a few examples of different types of reference entries along with their templates. The examples given are for one author. Note that “F” and “M” in the templates denote the first and the middle initials of an author’s name.
The title of the book is set in italics and sentence case.
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the book . Publisher.
Ahmed, S. (2014). The cultural politics of emotion . Edinburgh University Press.
The title of the article is in sentence case. The first word of a subtitle is capitalized. The journal title and the volume number are set in italics. If an article has a DOI it should always be included. Use “https://doi.org/” before the DOI. If there is no DOI for an online journal, include the URL instead. Do not use a period after the DOI or URL.
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. URL or DOI
Collins, R. (2004). Rituals of solidarity and security in the wake of terrorist attack. Sociological Theory, 22 (1), 53–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2004.00204.x
Newspaper or magazine article
Newspaper and magazine articles take the same style. The title of the article is in plain text and sentence case; the title of the newspaper or the magazine is set in italics. Follow the format given in the template and example for setting the date, month, and year.
Surname, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper or Magazine . URL
TNN. (2021, July 18). Parents have a habit of comparing kids to others but you don’t need to. The Times of India . https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com//home/sunday-times/parents-have-a-habit-of-comparing-kids-to-others-but-you-dont-need-to/articleshow/84507857.cms
The webpage title is in plain text, while the Website name is set in italics. Follow the format given in the template and example for setting the date, month, year, and URL.
Author or Organization Name. (Year, Month Day of Publication ). Webpage title. Title of the Website. URL
Lamberth, H. (2021, August 12). Binge drinking is problem drinking: How to get back in control. PSYCOM . https://www.psycom.net/binge-drinking-problem-drinking
The video title is set in sentence case and italicized. The first word after a colon is capitalized. The word “Video” is enclosed in brackets after the video title. This is followed followed by the word “YouTube.” Finally, the link is given. Note that a period is not given after the URL.
Uploader’s name, F. (Year, Month Day Published). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL
Ananta, P. (2021, February 21). APJ Abdul Kalam inspirational quotes [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjfL51RFL2k
Reference entries for different number of authors
The number of authors in the source decides how the author name(s) will be set in the references list. Here, you will see many journal references with different numbers of authors.
List the author name followed by the publication year.
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range.
Spitka, T. (2017). Mediating among mediators: Building a consensus in multilateral interventions. International Negotiation, 23 , 1–30.
Separate the author names by an ampersand. Use a comma between the first author’s initial and the ampersand symbol.
Author Surname, F. M., & Author Surname, F. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL
Bernstein, B., & Solomon, J. (1999). Pedagogy, identity and the construction of a theory of symbolic control: Basil Bernstein questioned by Joseph Solomon. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20 (2), 265–279. https://doi:10.1080/01425699995443
When you add two organizations in the author field, do not use a comma before the ampersand.
Organization 1 & Organization 2. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL
American Psychological Association & American Psychological Society. (2020). Psychology of children. Journal of Child Psychology, 34 (23), 1–12.
List all author names. Do not forget to insert an “ampersand” before the last author. The example given below is for three authors.
Author Surname, F. M., Author Surname, F. M., & Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL
Pyysiäinen, J., Halpin, D., & Guilfoyle, A. (2017). Neoliberal governance and ‘responsibilization’ of agents: Reassessing the mechanisms of responsibility-shift in neoliberal discursive environments. Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory, 18 (2), 215–235. https://doi:10.1080/1600910X.2017.1331858
More than 20 authors
List the names of the first 19 authors followed by an ellipsis. Add the final author name after the ellipsis but without the ampersand symbol before the last author name.
Author Surname1, F. M., Author Surname2, F. M., Author Surname3, F. M., Author Surname4, F. M., Author Surname5, F. M., Author Surname6, F. M., Author Surname7, F. M., Author Surname8, F. M., Author Surname9, F. M., Author Surname10, F. M., Author Surname11, F. M., Author Surname12, F. M., Author Surname13, F. M., Author Surname14, F. M., Author Surname15, F. M., Author Surname16, F. M., Author Surname17, F. M., Author Surname18, F. M., Author Surname19, F. M,¼ Last Author name, F. M. (Publication Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. DOI or URL
Fox, J., Harper, D., Bird, A., Kindler, F. A., Feng, H.-G., Seng, A. L., Sevel, K., Ed, E., Nell, A., Ten, T., Elin, K. J., Thomas, A., Thendy, S., Fall, W., Fint, E., Gurdy, A. K., Dondy, D., Egert, E., Nanda, A. L., ¼ Long, G. (2015). Pedagogising knowledge: Bernstein’s theory of the pedagogic device. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23 (4), 571–582.
For additional information on APA format, select from one of the source types below. For help creating APA citations, check out the BibMe APA citation generator.
- How to cite a Book in APA
- How to cite a Magazine in APA
- How to cite a Newspaper in APA
- How to cite a Website in APA
- How to cite a Journal Article in APA
- How to cite a Film in APA
- How to cite an Interview in APA
- How to cite a Lecture in APA
- How to cite a TV Show / Radio Broadcast in APA
- How to cite an Encyclopedia in APA
- How to cite a Photograph in APA
- APA 7 Updates
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As per Section 8.17 from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , for any work that has three or more authors, the name of the first author and “et al.” should be used as in-text citation. The Latin phrase “et al” means “and others” and is used to reduce the citation length.
Example In-Text Citation Entry:
No stretch of reason can categorize cultural appropriation as imaginary (Rahim et al., 2020).
Sometimes, the same set of initial authors and the same publication year appear in a paper. In such rare circumstances, as per Section 8.18 of the APA manual, write out as many names as needed to differentiate between these similar references.
Example In-Text Citation Entries:
Miller, John, Reighstag et al. (2018)
Miller, John, Amudsen, et al. (2018)
As per Section 8.21 and Table 8.1 of the APA Publication Manual , a citation for a group author may be abbreviated in in-text citations. It is not compulsory to do so; however, if the group author is well known or if it appears at least thrice in the paper, then the name of the group may be abbreviated.
Parenthetical in-text citation template and example:
(Full Name of the Group [Abbreviation], year)
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2018)
Whether it is a narrative or parenthetical in-text citation, the full name of the group should be mentioned in the first instance, along with the abbreviation.
Narrative in-text citation examples:
The American Psychological Association (APA, 2017) argues that… (first instance)
As per the APA (2017), it is standard practice that… (subsequent instances)
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
URLs vs. DOIs
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
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Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
While citation styles can vary greatly in their particulars, most major styles (including APA, MLA, and Chicago) require writers to include either a URL or a DOI in citations for digital content whenever possible. You do not normally need to include both.
This resource explains the difference between URLs and DOIs and briefly describes how to incorporate either form of information into your citations.
What are DOIs?
When sources are published electronically, they are assigned DOIs—a unique series of letters and numbers set by the International DOI Foundation. The IDF, founded in 1998, handles creator requests for DOIs and standardizes each DOI they assign. Every DOI begins with the number 10, and can generally be found on the first page of the digital article. DOIs also associate their publications with metadata, or relevant information related to each source (such as author, location, and date information). Because DOIs are assigned when a source is published electronically, some older sources will not have DOIs. If you are citing a print source and want to know if it has been assigned a DOI, use CrossRef.org’s DOI lookup on the website’s home page.
DOIs differ from URLs in that they are static. In other words, once they are assigned, they will not change, which makes it very easy to locate at any future time (even after it has been moved). Here is an example DOI for Ryan LaMothe’s article “Pebbles in the Shoe: Acts of Compassion as Subversion in a Market Society,” published in the journal Pastoral Psychology:
The title page of a scholarly article hosted online. Note the DOI at the top of the page.
When should I use a URL?
In the event that a source does not have a DOI assigned, or if the citation style you are using specifically calls for URLs over DOIs, cite the source’s URL. This is its ordinary web address, which typically appears in the navigation bar at the top of your web browser.
Here is an example of a URL for the Purdue OWL homepage:
A screenshot of a web browser's navigation bar. Note that the Purdue OWL homepage URL is visible in the address field.
URLs can change if the website is edited or updated, or the source is moved. Because of this, many online databases (such as library websites and scholarly article repositories) assign sources with stable URLs (sometimes called “permalinks”) unique to the database’s own website for this purpose. Like DOIs, these will not change and will link directly to the source on that specific webpage.
Note that some citation styles provide specific directions for how to format source URLs. For example, MLA only requires the www. portion of the URL, so leave off the https://.
The following chart breaks down the use of DOIs and URLs in four major citation styles and provides links to OWL pages that describe DOI and/or URL formatting rules for citations in those styles. Note that some of the styles have very similar guidelines.
For more in-depth information on formatting DOIs and URLs in your citations, be sure to consult the style guide for whatever style you are using, as each has different ordering and formatting preferences.
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Citation machine® guides & resources, mla format: everything you need to know and more.
Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!
MLA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs
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Our Citation Machine® APA guide is a one-stop shop for learning how to cite in APA format. Read up on what APA is, or use our citing tools and APA examples to create citations for websites, books, journals, and more!
APA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs
Everything You Need to Know About Chicago Style
Creating citations in Chicago style has never been easier thanks to our extensive Citation Machine® Chicago style guide and tools. Learn about footnotes, endnotes, and everything in between, or easily create citations for websites, books, journal articles, and more!
Chicago Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs
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What Is Cite This For Me's Citation Generator?
Cite This For Me’s open-access generator is an automated citation machine that turns any of your sources into citations in just a click. Using a citation generator helps students to integrate referencing into their research and writing routine; turning a time-consuming ordeal into a simple task.
A citation machine is essentially a works cited generator that accesses information from across the web, drawing the relevant information into a fully-formatted bibliography that clearly presents all of the sources that have contributed to your work.
If you don’t know how to cite correctly, or have a fast-approaching deadline, Cite This For Me’s accurate and intuitive citation machine will lend you the confidence to realise your full academic potential. In order to get a grade that reflects all your hard work, your citations must be accurate and complete. Using a citation maker to create your references not only saves you time but also ensures that you don’t lose valuable marks on your assignment.
Not sure how to format your citations, what citations are, or just want to find out more about Cite This For Me’s citation machine? This guide outlines everything you need to know to equip yourself with the know-how and confidence to research and cite a wide range of diverse sources in your work.
Why Do I Need To Cite?
Simply put, referencing is the citing of sources used in essays, articles, research, conferences etc. When another source contributes to your work, you have to give the original owner the appropriate credit. After all, you wouldn’t steal someone else’s possessions so why would you steal their ideas?
Any factual material or ideas you take from another source must be acknowledged in a reference, unless it is common knowledge (e.g. President Kennedy was killed in 1963). Failing to credit all of your sources, even when you’ve paraphrased or completely reworded the information, is plagiarism. Plagiarizing will result in disciplinary action, which can range from losing precious points on your assignment to expulsion from your university.
What’s more, attributing your research infuses credibility and authority into your work, both by supporting your own ideas and by demonstrating the breadth of your research. For many students, crediting sources can be a confusing and tedious process, but it’s a surefire way to improve the quality of your work so it’s essential to get it right. Luckily for you, using Cite This For Me’s citation machine makes creating accurate references easier than ever, leaving more time for you to excel in your studies.
In summary, the referencing process serves three main functions:
- To validate the statements and conclusions in your work by providing directions to other sound sources that support and verify them.
- To help your readers locate, read and check your sources, as well as establishing their contribution to your work.
- To give credit to the original author and hence avoid committing intellectual property theft (known as ‘plagiarism’ in academia).
How Do I Cite My Sources With The Cite This For Me's Citation Machine?
Cite This For Me’s citation generator is the most accurate citation machine available, so whether you’re not sure how to format in-text citations or are looking for a foolproof solution to automate a fully-formatted works cited list, this citation machine will solve all of your referencing needs.
Referencing your source material doesn’t just prevent you from losing valuable marks for plagiarism, it also provides all of the information to help your reader find for themselves the book, article, or other item you are citing. The accessible interface of this citation builder makes it easy for you to identify the source you have used – simply enter its unique identifier into the citation machine search bar. If this information is not available you can search for the title or author instead, and then select from the search results that appear below the citation generator.
The good news is that by using tools such as Cite This For Me, which help you work smarter, you don’t need to limit your research to sources that are traditional to cite. In fact, there are no limits to what you can reference, whether it be a YouTube video, website or a tweet.
To use the works cited generator, simply:
- Select from APA, MLA, Chicago, ASA, IEEE and AMA * styles.
- Choose the type of source you would like to cite (e.g. website, book, journal, video).
- Enter the URL , DOI , ISBN , title, or other unique source information into the citation generator to find your source.
- Click the ‘Cite’ button on the citation machine.
- Copy your new reference from the citation generator into your bibliography or works cited list.
- Repeat for each source that has contributed to your work.
*If you require another referencing style for your paper, essay or other academic work, you can select from over 7,500 styles.
Once you have created your Cite This For Me account you will be able to use the citation machine to generate multiple references and save them into a project. Use the highly-rated iOS or Android apps to create references in a flash with your smartphone camera, export your complete bibliography in one go, and much more.
What Will The Citation Machine Create For Me?
Cite This For Me’s citation maker will generate your reference in two parts; an in-text citation and a full reference to be copied straight into your work.
The citation machine will auto-generate the correct formatting for your works cited list or bibliography depending on your chosen style. For instance, if you select a parenthetical style on the citation machine it will generate an in-text citation in parentheses, along with a full reference to slot into your bibliography. Likewise, if the citation generator is set to a footnote style then it will create a fully-formatted reference for your reference page and bibliography, as well as a corresponding footnote to insert at the bottom of the page containing the relevant source.
Parenthetical referencing examples:
In-text example: A nation has been defined as an imagined community (Anderson, 2006).* Alternative format: Anderson (2006) defined a nation as an imagined community.
*The citation machine will create your references in the first style, but this should be edited if the author’s name already appears in the text.
Bibliography / Works Cited list example: Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
Popular Citation Examples
- Citing archive material
- Citing artwork
- Citing an audiobook
- Citing the Bible
- Citing a blog
- Citing a book
- Citing a book chapter
- Citing a comic book
- Citing conference proceedings
- Citing a court case
- Citing a database
- Citing a dictionary entry
- Citing a dissertation
- Citing an eBook
- Citing an edited book
- Citing an email
- Citing an encyclopedia article
- Citing a government publication
- Citing an image
- Citing an interview
- Citing a journal article
- Citing legislation
- Citing a magazine
- Citing a meme
- Citing a mobile app
- Citing a movie
- Citing a newspaper
- Citing a pamphlet
- Citing a patent
- Citing a play
- Citing a podcast
- Citing a poem
- Citing a presentation
- Citing a press release
- Citing a pseudonym
- Citing a report
- Citing Shakespeare
- Citing social media
- Citing a song
- Citing software
- Citing a speech
- Citing translated book
- Citing a TV Show
- Citing a weather report
- Citing a website
- Citing Wikipedia article
- Citing a YouTube video
What Are Citation Styles?
A citation style is a set of rules that you, as an academic writer, must follow to ensure the quality and relevance of your work. There are thousands of styles that are used in different academic institutions around the world, but in the US the most common are APA, MLA and Chicago.
The style you need to use will depend on the preference of your professor, discipline or academic institution – so if you’re unsure which style you should be using, consult your department and follow their guidelines exactly, as this is what you’ll be evaluated on when it comes to grading.
Referencing isn’t just there to guard against plagiarism – presenting your research in a clear and consistent way eases the reader’s comprehension. Each style has a different set of rules for both page formatting and referencing. Be sure to adhere to formatting rules such as font type, font size and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Furthermore, if your work is published as part of an anthology or collected works, each entry will need to be presented in the same style to maintain uniformity throughout. It is important to make sure that you don’t jump from one style to another, so follow the rules carefully to ensure your reference page and bibliography are both accurate and complete.
If you need a hand with your referencing then why not try Cite This For Me’s citation builder? It’s the quickest and easiest way to reference any source, in any style. The citation generator above will create your references in MLA format style as standard, but this powerful citation machine can generate fully-formatted references in thousands of the widely used global college styles – including individual university variations of each style. So, whether your subject requires you to use the APA citation , or your professor has asked you to adopt the Chicago style citation so that your work includes numbered footnotes, we’re sure to have the style you need. Cite This For Me also offers a citation machine and helpful formatting guide for styles such as ASA , IEEE or AMA . To access all of them, simply create your free account and search for your specific style.
Popular Citation Styles
- ACS Referencing Generator
- AMA Citation Generator
- APA Citation Generator
- APSA Referencing Generator
- ASA Citation Generator
- Bluebook Citation Generator
- Chicago Style Citation Generator
- Harvard Referencing Generator
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- MLA Citation Generator
- Nature Referencing Generator
- OSCOLA Referencing Generator
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How Do I Format A Works Cited List Or Bibliography?
Drawing on a wide range of sources greatly enhances the quality of your work, and reading above and beyond your recommended reading list – and then using these sources to support your own thesis – is an excellent way to impress your reader. A clearly presented works cited list or bibliography demonstrates the lengths you have gone to in researching your chosen topic.
Typically, a works cited list starts on a new page at the end of the main body of text and includes a complete list of the sources you have actually cited in your paper. This list should contain all the information needed for the reader to locate the original source of the information, quote or statistic that directly contributed to your work. On the other hand, a bibliography is a comprehensive list of all the material you may have consulted throughout your research and writing process. Both provide the necessary information for readers to retrieve and check the sources cited in your work.
Each style’s guidelines will define the terminology of ‘ works cited ’ and ‘ bibliography ’, as well as providing formatting guidelines for font, line spacing and page indentations. In addition, it will instruct you on how to order your works cited list or bibliography – this will usually be either alphabetical or chronological (meaning the order that these sources appear in your work). Before submitting your work, be sure to check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference page and bibliography – according to your style’s formatting guidelines.
Sounds complicated? Referencing has never been so easy; Cite This For Me’s citation machine will automatically generate fully-formatted references for your works cited page or bibliography in your chosen style. Sign in to your Cite This For Me account to save and export your bibliography straight into Microsoft Word, Evernote, EndNote and more. If that sounds like too much work.
How Do Citations Actually Work?
Although the citation generator will create your bibliography and works cited list for you in record time, it is still useful to understand how this system works behind the scenes. Understanding how a citation machine actually generates references will greatly increase the quality of your work.
As well as saving you time with its citation maker, Cite This For Me provides the learning resources to help you fully understand the citing process and the benefits of adopting great referencing standards.
The referencing process:
- Find a book, journal, website or other source that will contribute to your work.
- Save the quote, image, data or other information that you will use in your work.
- Save the source information that enables you to find it again (i.e. URL, ISBN, DOI etc.).
- Format the source information into a reference.
- Copy and paste the reference into the body of the text.
- Repeat for each source that contributes to your work.
- Export or copy and paste the fully-formatted reference into your bibliography.
Manage all your citations in one place
Create projects, add notes, cite directly from the browser and scan books’ barcodes with a mobile app.
Sign up to Cite This For Me – the ultimate citation management tool.
What Is Citation?
A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:
- information about the author
- the title of the work
- the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source
- the date your copy was published
- the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
Why should I cite sources?
Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources:
- citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from
- not all sources are good or right -- your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else's bad ideas
- citing sources shows the amount of research you've done
- citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas
Doesn't citing make my work seem less original?
Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps your reader distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work.
When do I need to cite?
Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:
- whenever you use quotes
- whenever you paraphrase
- whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed
- whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
- whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
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What is Citation Link Building?
In the dynamic world of SEO, we continuously uncover new ways to boost our online presence and get our businesses to thrive. One such powerful and often underestimated strategy is citation link building. This technique has proved its worth in improving local SEO, enhancing business visibility, and influencing search engine rankings.
Table of Contents
But what exactly is citation building? How does it work, and more importantly, why should it matter to you? Let’s explore the details.
What is Citation Building?
Citation building, also known as a local citation, is a strategy to spread the word about your local business across the internet. A citation is an online reference to your business’s name, address, and phone number (NAP). Think of it as a kind of online footprint, marking your presence across various platforms and local directories.
For instance, if your business is listed on Yelp with its name, location, and contact details, that’s a citation. These citations don’t necessarily need to provide a link back to your websites. The simple mention or reference of your NAP is enough.
The goal here is not just to scatter this information aimlessly but to create a consistent and credible depiction of your business across the digital landscape. This has a significant influence on how search engines perceive the legitimacy and relevance of your business, particularly when it comes to local search results.
Anatomy of a Perfect Citation
When creating a citation, some crucial elements contribute to its effectiveness.
- Explanation of NAP (Name, Address, Phone number) : NAP is the basis of your citation. Ensuring this information is correct and consistent across all citations is vital. Variations or dissimilarities can lead to confusion and diminish the impact of your citation building efforts.
- Consistency in citation details : Being consistent is essential to establish credibility. Consistent NAP information across all your citations indicates to search engines that your business really exists in a certain location. Inconsistencies can harm your local SEO and search engine rankings.
- Additional information in citations : While the NAP is crucial, supplementing your citations with additional details like operating hours, website address, and business descriptions (with relevant keywords) can provide extra value. This additional information helps potential customers understand your business better and might just give you the edge over your competitors.
Different Types of Citations
Citations can broadly be categorised into structured and unstructured citations:
- Structured citations : These are the details about your company that are listed in directories, business listing websites, or social media accounts. Think of platforms like Yelp, Google My Business, or Yellow Pages . Here, the citation follows a clear structure, often in a format dictated by the platform.
- Unstructured citations : These are references to your company on websites that aren’t directories, such as a blog post, a news site, or a wiki page. They don’t follow a specific format but are equally important for enhancing your visibility online.
A successful citation building strategy typically involves a mix of both structured and unstructured citations, offering a balanced and comprehensive footprint of your business online.
While structured citations give search engines clear, straightforward signals about your business details, unstructured citations provide an organic context, often highlighting the relevance and authority of your business within your industry or local area.
How Citation Building Differs from Link Building
At first glance, citation building and link building or backlink might seem similar. After all, both strategies involve spreading your business’s existence across diverse online outlets. However, they serve different purposes and operate on different principles.
Link building is an integral part of SEO, where the objective is to secure hyperlinks from other sites to yours. These backlinks serve as endorsements in the eyes of search engines, boosting your website’s authority and enhancing its probability of ranking better in search results.
On the other hand, citation building doesn’t primarily aim to secure links back to your website. Instead, it focuses on listing your business’s NAP details consistently across various platforms, directories, and websites. The goal here is to enhance local SEO and increase the exposure of your company in local search results. Whether these citations include a link back to your website or not is secondary.
Read More : How to Create a Link-Building Plan
Benefits of Citation Building
Citation building offers a number of benefits that can significantly strengthen your local SEO efforts:
- Enhanced Local Visibility : By listing your business on popular directories and platforms, you enhance your probability of being found by possible customers in your local area.
- Improved Local SEO : Search engines like Google use citation information to evaluate the authority and legitimacy of a business. Being a ranking factor for local SEO, consistent and accurate citations can ensure enhanced local search rankings.
- Greater Consumer Trust : Consistent and accurate citations can help build confidence with possible consumers for your business. If they see your business details consistently across various platforms, they’re likely to view your business as more reliable and credible.
- Increased Web Traffic : While not the primary aim, well-placed citations can generate additional traffic to your website, particularly if they include a link to your site.
- Outshine Competitors : If your business has a higher number of accurate citations compared to your competitors, you can gain an edge in local search results.
Best Practices for Successful Citation Building
A successful citation building strategy involves more than merely listing your business in every directory you find. Here are some best practices you can utilise:
- Accuracy is Key : Ensure your NAP information is accurate across all platforms. Discrepancies can lead to confusion and may harm your local SEO.
- Consistency is Crucial : Maintain consistency in how you list your NAP across different platforms. Even minor differences can cause search engines to view them as separate entities.
- Choose Relevant Platforms : Not all directories and platforms are equal. Pick ones that are appropriate to your company and industry, and have a good reputation and traffic.
- Regularly Update Your Citations : Business details can change. Regularly review and update your citations to reflect any changes in your NAP or other business details.
- Monitor Your Citations : Use tools to track your citations and check for accuracy and consistency. This can also assist you in determining any potential opportunities for new citations.
Citation link building is an essential element of a decisive local SEO strategy. With its ability to enhance your business’s online visibility, increase web traffic, and improve search rankings, it’s a technique that can significantly benefit businesses of all sizes. By incorporating these best practices into your citation building strategy, you’ll be well on your way to making the most of this powerful SEO tool.
Also Read : Why Black Hat Link Building Spells Disaster for Your Website’s SEO
Need Help with Citation Building? Contact ACERO Today!
Citation building might seem like a daunting task, with its many sophistication and requirements for consistency. But you don’t have to navigate this complex landscape alone. ACERO, your reliable partner in SEO and digital marketing, is ready to steer you on the path to online success.
With our expertise in citation building, we can help enhance your online presence, boost your local SEO efforts, and help your business appear prominently in local search results. We understand the power of well-executed citation building and are committed to providing tailored strategies that suit your unique business needs.
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Title: efficient neural networks for tiny machine learning: a comprehensive review.
Abstract: The field of Tiny Machine Learning (TinyML) has gained significant attention due to its potential to enable intelligent applications on resource-constrained devices. This review provides an in-depth analysis of the advancements in efficient neural networks and the deployment of deep learning models on ultra-low power microcontrollers (MCUs) for TinyML applications. It begins by introducing neural networks and discussing their architectures and resource requirements. It then explores MEMS-based applications on ultra-low power MCUs, highlighting their potential for enabling TinyML on resource-constrained devices. The core of the review centres on efficient neural networks for TinyML. It covers techniques such as model compression, quantization, and low-rank factorization, which optimize neural network architectures for minimal resource utilization on MCUs. The paper then delves into the deployment of deep learning models on ultra-low power MCUs, addressing challenges such as limited computational capabilities and memory resources. Techniques like model pruning, hardware acceleration, and algorithm-architecture co-design are discussed as strategies to enable efficient deployment. Lastly, the review provides an overview of current limitations in the field, including the trade-off between model complexity and resource constraints. Overall, this review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of efficient neural networks and deployment strategies for TinyML on ultra-low-power MCUs. It identifies future research directions for unlocking the full potential of TinyML applications on resource-constrained devices.
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Sam Altman to return as OpenAI CEO after his tumultuous ouster
- OpenAI revamps board with Bret Taylor as new chair
- Co-founder Brockman and other staff also return
- Questions still remain around Altman's ouster
SAN FRANCISCO, Nov 22 (Reuters) - Sam Altman is returning as CEO of OpenAI just days after his ouster, capping frenzied discussions about the future of the startup at the center of an artificial intelligence boom.
The ChatGPT maker also unveiled a new initial board with former Salesforce co-CEO Bret Taylor as chair and Larry Summers, former U.S. Treasury Secretary, and Adam D'Angelo as directors. D'Angelo was part of the original board that had dismissed Altman.
The return of Altman could potentially usher in a new era for the startup which had long juggled concerns among staff about AI's dangers and its potential for commercialization.
"i'm looking forward to returning to openai," Altman said in a post on the X social media platform late on Tuesday.
The original board had given scant explanation for Altman's firing on Friday other than his lack of candor and its need to defend OpenAI's mission to develop AI that benefits humanity.
Analysts said the reshuffle will favor Altman and Microsoft (MSFT.O) , which has pledged billions of dollars to the startup and is rolling out its technology to its customers globally.
"There are still huge questions about why Altman was fired and why Microsoft had been kept in the dark about the decision," said Danni Hewson, AJ Bell's head of financial analysis.
"What does seem clear is that Microsoft will now play a much bigger role, that the partnership will become stronger and the two companies more integrated."
Microsoft's CEO Satya Nadella welcomed the changes.
"We believe this is a first essential step on a path to more stable, well-informed, and effective governance," he said on X.
Microsoft shares rose nearly 1% in premarket U.S trading.
It was not immediately clear if the previous board directors who hold no equity in OpenAI would retain their seats, or if the backers of its capped-profit subsidiary - such as 49% owner Microsoft - would ultimately win board appointments.
Unlike most Silicon Valley startups, OpenAI is overseen by a nonprofit parent board designed to ensure AI safety is given priority alongside growth. It created the capped-profit unit in 2019 to raise funds and grant stock options to its employees.
"The return of Altman consolidates his influence over the direction of OpenAI, and probably means it will be more bold and profit focused, but also potentially less risk averse," said Kyle Rodda, analyst at Capital.com.
Sam Altman attends the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) CEO Summit in San Francisco, California, U.S. November 16, 2023. REUTERS/Carlos Barria/File Photo Acquire Licensing Rights
Spokespeople for the startup did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
OpenAI's previous board consisted of Tasha McCauley, Helen Toner and OpenAI chief scientist Ilya Sutskever and Quora CEO D'Angelo, who is part of the revamped board.
Reuters earlier reported some shareholders were exploring legal recourse after the turmoil threatened the future of OpenAI, recently expected to have an over $80 billion valuation.
Tuesday's moves reassured some investors.
"We believe this is the best outcome for the company," said Thrive Capital, a backer of OpenAI.
YEARS FASTER THAN STEVE JOBS
Altman's dramatic turnaround drew comparisons in Silicon Valley lore to Steve Jobs, Apple's CEO who left the computer maker in a 1985 power struggle only to return 12 years later.
Altman took back the CEO mantle after four days.
His departure triggered a major upheaval at OpenAI, with President Greg Brockman quitting in protest. By Sunday Altman was back at OpenAI's offices expecting his swift reappointment, when the board surprised again by naming ex-Twitch boss Emmett Shear as interim CEO.
In a post on X on Tuesday, Shear said he worked "~72 very intense hours" to bring stability - and ultimately Altman - back to OpenAI. "This was the pathway that maximized safety alongside doing right by all stakeholders involved," he said.
Altman's master stroke was made possible in part by Microsoft. When he was out of a job, CEO Nadella said Altman could head a new research team alongside Brockman and other colleagues departing from OpenAI.
By Monday, nearly all of OpenAI's over 700-strong staff had threatened to leave and join Microsoft's effort unless the board stepped down and reinstated Altman, according to a letter reviewed by Reuters.
This threat was backed by Microsoft's vast computing power, the key asset driving OpenAI's technology along with its staff of computer scientists.
Co-founder and President Brockman celebrated with a staff selfie late Tuesday night, having beaten the U.S. Thanksgiving holiday deadline against which parties raced to negotiate.
"We will come back stronger & more unified than ever," he said.
Reporting by Jeffrey Dastin in San Francisco and Aditya Soni, Shivani Tanna and Bansari Mayur Kamdar in Bengaluru. Editing by Dhanya Ann Thoppil, Nivedita Bhattacharjee, Sam Holmes and Jane Merriman
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Jeffrey Dastin is a correspondent for Reuters based in San Francisco, where he reports on the technology industry and artificial intelligence. He joined Reuters in 2014, originally writing about airlines and travel from the New York bureau. Dastin graduated from Yale University with a degree in history. He was part of a team that examined lobbying by Amazon.com around the world, for which he won a SOPA Award in 2022.
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OpenAI board faces growing revolt over Sam Altman’s ousting
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Sam Altman to return as OpenAI CEO
Sam Altman is returning to OpenAI as its chief executive, the high-profile AI startup said Wednesday, a dramatic reversal that caps an intense five days of discussions, debates and convincing following the sudden dismissal of Altman last week from the startup he co-founded.
OpenAI, which is the most valuable U.S. startup, said it has reached an “agreement in principle” for Altman’s return. The startup is also reforming its board , eliminating several members who faced intense scrutiny for their decision last week .
Former Salesforce co-chief executive Bret Taylor, former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Larry Summers, and Quora founder Adam D’Angelo will be part of the new board at the AI startup. Taylor will serve as the chair of the board, the startup said .
Microsoft, which has invested over $11 billion in OpenAI and owns about 49% of the startup, was taken aback by OpenAI’s decision last week and rushed to hire Altman to lead a new AI group at the software conglomerate. Greg Brockman, former President of OpenAI, and countless other members of the startup resigned in protest of the earlier OpenAI board’s decision. Brockman, who had also joined Microsoft, said he was also returning to the startup.
In response to OpenAI’s move Wednesday, Altman said : “I love OpenAI, and everything I’ve done over the past few days has been in service of keeping this team and its mission together. when I decided to join Microsoft on Sunday evening, it was clear that was the best path for me and the team. With the new board and with Satya’s support, I’m looking forward to returning to OpenAI, and building on our strong partnership with Microsoft.”
Returning to OpenAI & getting back to coding tonight. — Greg Brockman (@gdb) November 22, 2023
Microsoft chief Satya Nadella, who also expressed disappointment in OpenAI board’s decision last week and pledged to ensure that Microsoft would never be “surprised” again, said Wednesday that he was encouraged by today’s changes to the OpenAI board.
“We believe this is a first essential step on a path to more stable, well-informed, and effective governance. Sam, Greg, and I have talked and agreed they have a key role to play along with the OAI leadership team in ensuring OAI continues to thrive and build on its mission. We look forward to building on our strong partnership and delivering the value of this next generation of AI to our customers and partners.”
Nadella said in television interviews earlier this week that he had earlier relayed to the OpenAI board of directors that Microsoft will be working with Altman and Brockman “either way.” He also didn’t rule out the possibility of Altman and Brockman returning to OpenAI and said Microsoft will remain committed to the startup, which through its ChatGPT platform has captured the attention of the world in a way very few technologies have in the past.
OpenAI isn’t only widely estimated to be leading the current AI race but also has in less than a year assumed the position of kingmaker for thousands of other startups that are building atop its software offerings. Investment in OpenAI has also supercharged Microsoft’s AI efforts, helping it court many businesses and bolstering Wall Street’s positive outlook on Microsoft’s future.
OpenAI’s earlier board — which included its chief scientist Ilya Sutskever, independent directors D’Angelo, technology entrepreneur Tasha McCauley, and Georgetown Center for Security and Emerging Technology’s Helen Toner — faced intense public scrutiny for their abrupt decision, for which they never offered a comprehensive explanation. Growing frustrated with the earlier OpenAI board, several OpenAI investors began exploring options to sue the board members, Reuters reported Tuesday.
Joshua Kushner, founder of Thrive Capital, a backer of OpenAI, who had pushed for Altman’s return, said Wednesday that the startup has the “potential to be one of the most consequential companies in the history of computing.” Altman and Brockman “possess a profound commitment to the company’s integrity, and an unmatched ability to inspire and lead. We couldn’t be more excited for them to come back to the company they founded and helped build into what it is today.”
“The resilience and strength we have seen from the entire OpenAI team in the past few days has been extraordinary, and we consider it a true honor to be their partners now and in the future. We believe this is the best outcome for the company, its employees, those who build on their technologies, and the world at large.”
Emmett Shear, the former Twitch chief executive who was appointed as interim leader of OpenAI on Sunday, said he was pleased with OpenAI’s new decision. “Coming into OpenAI, I wasn’t sure what the right path would be. This was the pathway that maximized safety alongside doing right by all stakeholders involved. I’m glad to have been a part of the solution,” he posted on X.
we are so back pic.twitter.com/YcKwkqdNs5 — Greg Brockman (@gdb) November 22, 2023
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Middle East crisis — explained
The conflict between Israel and Palestinians — and other groups in the Middle East — goes back decades. These stories provide context for current developments and the history that led up to them.
Palestinians in Israel cite threats, firings and discrimination after Oct. 7
Members of the group, Standing Together, paint signs to hang over bridges. The group's members are Jewish and Palestinian Israelis and the signs are in Hebrew and Arabic, and say: "Good neighbors even in hard times; Arabs and Jews together even in hard times." Tanya Habjouqa / NOOR Images for NPR hide caption
Members of the group, Standing Together, paint signs to hang over bridges. The group's members are Jewish and Palestinian Israelis and the signs are in Hebrew and Arabic, and say: "Good neighbors even in hard times; Arabs and Jews together even in hard times."
TEL AVIV, Israel — Two years ago, Samah Abou Shhadeh graduated from college and landed a coveted job as an economist at an Israeli financial services company in a skyscraper in downtown Tel Aviv.
Abou Shhadeh's hiring broke barriers.
"I was the first Arab to come to this company, with all Jewish colleagues. I felt like I had to work extra hard," she tells NPR.
She commuted daily from her home in Jaffa, an ancient Arab quarter of what is now Tel Aviv, where her family has lived for centuries. At work, she kept her head down, and avoided talk about politics. Instead, she'd regale her colleagues with talk about her upcoming wedding.
"All of them were my friends, before the war," she says.
But everything changed on Oct. 7, when Hamas militants attacked multiple locations in Israel, killing around 1,200 people and kidnapping about 240 , according to the Israeli government. Israel has responded with fierce bombardment of Gaza that has killed more than 12,000, Palestinian health officials say.
In a tale of two protests, a stark divide among young voters on the Israel-Hamas war
Colleagues began sharing grief and rage on social media, Abou Shhadeh recalls. But when she did the same, there were big consequences.
On Oct. 9, she shared a clip on Instagram from a 2022 Israeli documentary called Tantura . It's about a massacre in one Palestinian village during the 1948 war over Israel's founding. She posted the footage, without any commentary of her own. This was on her personal account.
Her manager phoned her the next day. Colleagues were offended. He asked her to remove the clip. Abou Shhadeh refused — and a letter from human resources followed.
She was fired.
War has unleashed a wave of mistreatment
At least 20% of Israelis identify as Arab or Palestinian, like Abou Shhadeh. Most of them are descendants of the people who weren't killed, expelled or compelled to flee when Israel was created.
Many say they've long felt like second-class citizens. But human rights advocates say this Gaza war has unleashed a wave of mistreatment, abuse and further discrimination.
This month, three Palestinian doctors in Israel penned an open letter decrying "racism, militarism and hypocrisy" in the Israeli medical system, where they say their Jewish colleagues have been "cheering for the killing of innocent Palestinian civilians."
Abou Shhadeh is mulling a labor discrimination lawsuit, but she's scared. She asked NPR not to name or contact her company. She's worried it could hurt her prospects of finding a new job.
In the HR letter outlining her dismissal, which Abou Shhahdeh showed to NPR, the company says it supports freedom of expression, but that during wartime, more sensitivity is expected from employees. Abou Shhadeh crossed a line, it reads.
"This is all absurd. We are not talking about feelings that are hurt," says Sawsan Zaher, a human rights lawyer based in Haifa, Israel. "We are talking about a massive wave of political persecution against Arab citizens inside of Israel."
One lawyer reports huge uptick in discrimination complaints
Haneen Zoabi, a former member of Israel's parliament, was arrested at a peaceful protest and released this month. Tanya Habjouqa / NOOR Images for NPR hide caption
Haneen Zoabi, a former member of Israel's parliament, was arrested at a peaceful protest and released this month.
Zaher, who does not know or represent Abou Shhadeh, says she's getting 20 times more queries from Arabs reporting labor abuse inside Israel compared to before the war.
"Every phone call is people who are being fired from their jobs or suspended from colleges and universities," she said. "But they're also being arrested, and indictments are being submitted."
Some Israeli media have carried stories about this . But data are difficult to compile. Many victims say they're scared to speak up.
One of those arrested and released this month was Haneen Zoabi, a former member of Israel's parliament. She's part of Balad, an Arab political party that advocates for the rights of Palestinian citizens of Israel.
On Nov. 9, Zoabi and five colleagues gathered in a public square in her hometown of Nazareth, in northern Israel, for what they had planned as a peaceful protest, she recalled in an interview with NPR at her home. They'd applied for a permit to protest, but police turned it down. They gathered anyway, with banners that read, "Stop Genocide" and "Stop the war in Gaza."
But before they could even unfurl their banners, police came and arrested Zoabi and her colleagues .
"We didn't have the time to hold the banners! We were on our way. We were six people, and the police didn't allow us — without banners, without anything — even to stand — to stand in the middle of Nazareth," she said.
Zoabi was arrested for alleged "incitement" and for attempting to protest without a permit, a Nazareth police spokesperson confirmed to NPR. As of early November, Israeli police had issued dozens of indictments for incitement to violence and terror, and had opened dozens of other such cases, since the beginning of the war, according to The Times of Israel . Police haven't made more up-to-date data public.
New law and new attitudes bring chilling effect
Haneen Zoabi outside her home. Tanya Habjouqa / NOOR Images for NPR hide caption
Haneen Zoabi outside her home.
Authorities haven't broken down those arrests by ethnicity, but Palestinian citizens of Israel say they've been disproportionately targeted.
Palestinians also have been arrested under an amendment added earlier this month to Israel's counterterrorism law, making "consumption of terrorist materials" — reading pro-Hamas content online, for example — a new criminal offense. The law has been criticized by rights groups groups including Article 19 and Adalah as being ambiguous and far-reaching.
Adalah has called the new amendment "one of the most intrusive and draconian legislative measures ever passed by the Israeli Knesset.
"It makes thoughts subject to criminal punishment ... and criminalizes even passive social media use," the group says.
Zoabi is a prominent Israeli dissident who's been detained for protesting before. But she says this time was different. She says Israeli police officers sang Jewish victory songs and waved an Israeli flag while booking her.
"They were dancing," she says.
A police spokesperson told NPR he did not know anything about that behavior.
Arrests like Zoabi's aim to further frighten and intimidate the Palestinian community, she says. Many are appalled by their government's bombardment of Gaza, but are scared to speak up, she says.
"If you don't open your mouth, they will start to say, 'Your silence is suspicious!' Zoabi says. "It is not enough if you shut your mouth. You should express that you agree with them, that you identify with them."
Activists call for Israeli-Palestinian partnerships
Mahasan Abed Alhady hugs Sokina Taoon, an Arab community organizer. The two gathered at the Standing Together banner painting earlier this month. Tanya Habjouqa / NOOR Images for NPR hide caption
Mahasan Abed Alhady hugs Sokina Taoon, an Arab community organizer. The two gathered at the Standing Together banner painting earlier this month.
Even those determined not to stay silent have to tread carefully.
In a barn off a rural road in northern Israel, Jewish and Palestinian citizens of Israel gathered together one recent evening to paint peace banners. The idea is to hang them from highway overpasses together.
The painters are members of grassroots group called Standing Together , which says it aims to bring Jewish and Palestinian citizens together "in pursuit of peace, equality, and social and climate justice."
At the gathering NPR attended, participants decried what they called increasing censorship of Palestinians in Israel, and of those who support them.
"There's a lot of discrimination. People are starting to tell on other people if they're criticizing the war or if they're even sympathizing with the pain of the Palestinians in Gaza," says Orly Mor, a Jewish dual American-Israeli citizen and member of the group.
Netanyahu says Gaza needs a new 'civilian government,' but won't say who
On the banners, Mor and her friends were painting slogans — in Arabic and Hebrew — calling for Palestinians and Jewish Israelis to join hands and support each other in this war.
For Abou Shhadeh, the economist in Tel Aviv, a simple social media post cost her a job.
She worries that taking legal action against her former employer might hurt her prospects for a new job — which she desperately needs. She and her fiancée have a mortgage to pay. They were supposed to get married this month, but the wedding is delayed because of the war.
Before Oct. 7, Abou Shhadeh marveled at how she could live in Tel Aviv's old Arab quarter Jaffa and commute across town to the city's mostly Jewish financial district. She was part of both of those worlds, and she was proud, she recalls.
"Now, this war has made me feel like I never belonged there," she says, gesturing across to the Tel Aviv skyline.
Local freelance producer Abed Abou Shhadeh contributed to this report. He and Samah Abou Shhadeh are members of the same extended family.
Holiday travelers can expect cheaper flights, packed hotels and lots of boomers
This year’s post-pandemic travel boom is continuing into the holidays.
Nearly half (48%) of Americans plan to travel between Thanksgiving and mid-January, up from 31% last winter, a recent Deloitte survey found. AAA expects 55.4 million travelers to venture at least 50 miles from home during the Thanksgiving period alone, a 2.3% increase from last year.
That means if you’re hitting the roads or the slopes this season, you’ll have lots of company. Here’s what to expect as you pack your bags for a winter getaway or to visit loved ones.
More affordable airfare
Airline ticket prices are falling even as more Americans intend to fly.
Deloitte found 33% of holiday travelers plan to take a domestic flight, up from 29% last year. Despite the strong demand, airfares were more than 13% cheaper last month than at same time a year ago, federal inflation data shows.
Domestic tickets are expected to be noticeably cheaper this season. Round-trip flights within the United States are set to average $268 during Thanksgiving (an annual decline of 14%) and $400 around Christmas (down 12%), according to the booking platform Hopper .
It’s more of a mixed picture for foreign getaways, for which Deloitte foresees softer demand.
Hopper expects international airfares to ease over the Thanksgiving holiday versus last year, but popular destinations in Mexico and the Caribbean are set to stay 5% to 11% higher than before the pandemic. And global flights around Christmastime are generally expected to stay elevated, according to Hopper, “with fares to all destinations outside the Caribbean and Oceania higher than 2019 and 2022 prices.”
(Hopefully) smoother-running airports
Airlines and aviation officials sound confident about handling the holiday crush. While major U.S. carriers — including American , Delta and United — expect record passenger numbers this Thanksgiving, many are touting their readiness for the season.
“We are now so much better prepared for these extreme weather events,” Southwest’s chief operating officer, Andrew Watterson, told investors on a recent earnings call, referring to the carrier’s holiday meltdown last December.
American Airlines is reassuring customers that it “has been running the most reliable operation of any U.S. network carrier for the past 14 months.” And United unveiled a new boarding process last month that it says should speed up the process.
The entire industry was snakebit from last year’s debacle, and airlines have adjusted their operations accordingly.
SCott Keyes, Founder of Going
Track records for flight cancellations and missing luggage have improved ahead of the holidays. About 1.7% of flights were canceled during the first eight months of this year, much better than the 3.0% rate for the same eight-month period last year and 2.3% in the comparable stretch of 2019, the Department of Transportation reported. And in August, the latest month with available data, the mishandled baggage rate dropped to 0.61% from 0.75% the month before.
A broader push to streamline and automate operations “will continue to help curb mishandling as we approach the holiday season,” said Nicole Hogg, head of baggage for SITA, an air transport IT company. But travel experts still suggest adding an AirTag or other digital tracking device to your luggage, especially during busy travel periods.
“Mother Nature will cause some number of cancellations, guaranteed,” said Scott Keyes, the founder of the airfare tracking site Going. But he noted that “cancellations caused by the airlines — the most galling for travelers — are at multiyear lows” and added that many carriers have bulked up on pilots, planes and staff.
“The entire industry was snakebit from last year’s debacle,” Keyes said, “and airlines have adjusted their operations accordingly.”
Pricier hotel rooms
More holiday travelers are set to book rooms than exclusively bunk with friends or family this year. Deloitte found 56% plan to stay in hotels, a sharp jump from 35% in 2022.
That could push up room rates, which were already 0.8% pricier in October than the year before . Jan Freitag, director of hospitality analytics at the commercial real-estate research company CoStar, said this season’s strong travel numbers will likely nudge Christmastime room rates above last year’s levels. In the first full week of November, they were up 4% in the U.S. from the same week a year ago, averaging $156 per night, CoStar said.
Price-conscious Christmas travelers might want to “book early to lock in lower rates, shorten their trips or trade down to a different class of service,” said Freitag, or else take their chances with last-minute reservations. Inventories will be slimmer in the eleventh hour, but hotels may still cut prices on unsold rooms.
More middle-aged and older seatmates
Baby boomers, who represented just 21% of those traveling during the holidays in 2022, are expected to make up 29% of travelers this year, Deloitte projects.
“Last year, older Americans were more likely to cite potential travel disruption and health as reasons to avoid travel,” said Steve Rogers, managing director of Deloitte’s Consumer Industry Center. “But this year, inflation, health and travel disruption concerns may have eased, and boomers are making up for lost trips.”
Inflation, health and travel disruption concerns may have eased, and boomers are making up for lost trips.
Steve Rogers, manager director of Deloitte’s Consumer Industry Center
Gen X travelers will also comprise a greater share of holiday travelers, Deloitte said, growing from 26% last year to an expected 29% this season. Millennial and Gen Z travelers, by contrast, are expected to fall back a bit — with millennials going from 36% of holiday travelers last year to 31% this year, and Gen Zers from 14% to just 8%.
How much each age group shells out over the holidays remains to be seen. The market research firm Future Partners found in a survey last month that boomers tend to have bigger full-year travel budgets — of around $4,408, above the $3,785 national average. However, PwC expects older travelers to trim their holiday travel spending by 22% since last year, partly so they can take more trips throughout the year.
“On the flip side,” said Jonathan Kletzel, PwC’s airline and travel practice leader, “Gen Z is making the biggest increase in their [holiday] travel spending, landing around 23% higher than last year.”
Growing reasons to tap loyalty points
This year 75% of holiday travelers plan to use credit cards to cover at least part of their expenses, according to a recent NerdWallet/Harris Poll survey, even though about 8% of those who charged holiday travel costs last year are still paying them off.
Americans have piled on credit card debt this year even as rates have surged. But stiffer interest fees appear to be making some holiday travelers a bit more cautious than last year, when 85% put at least some holiday travel costs on plastic, NerdWallet found.
“One way travelers are finding balance between the experiences they want and an increase in costs is through points and customer loyalty programs,” said Kletzel.
A Morning Consul report this month backed that up, showing across-the-board jumps in consumers planning to use rewards for bookings at hotels, travel companies and airlines this season. The share of those making points-based travel reservations through credit card programs rose 13% this Thanksgiving from last year and 9% for the winter holidays.
“A lot of people are sitting on more credit card rewards and/or hotel points than they realize, and about a quarter didn’t redeem any over the past year,” said Ted Rossman, a senior industry analyst at Bankrate. And because travel points typically don’t gain value once netted, he said, “it makes sense to earn and burn rewards strategically.”
Harriet Baskas is an NBC News contributor who writes about travel and the arts.