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Report Writing Guide for Civil Engineering Students Department of Civil Engineering

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Exceptions to this numbering convention 9 2. Introducing and summarizing sections 11 3. REPORT WRITING 12

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report pdf in civil engineering

Belén López Arroyo

Different types of specialized texts use certain sentence structures more than others. For instance, J.C. Sager et al.. (1980: 182-204) discussing sentence types in Special English (SE), which designates overall the language of science and technology, show that, in accordance with the strong informative intention of SE, the vast majority of sentences are declarative in nature, while imperative sentences, which in SE are the normal method of expressing instructions, as in the assembly of machinery, occur far more frequently in English for Technology (SE (Tech) than in English for Science (SE(Sci). Despite such variations in sentence structure, all these specialized texts have one element in common: they all use regular or major sentences. What sets wine tasting notes apart from other specialized genres is their use of irregular or minor sentences, along with regular sentences. The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of irregular sentences in English and Spanish tasting notes – their frequency, their positioning, possible reasons for their use-using an English and Spanish comparable corpus. Our starting point was the hypothesis that English wine tasting notes would contain more irregular sentences than the Spanish notes, given the general informality of English compared to Spanish. However, our corpus analysis showed that was not the case.

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Sally Kelty , Nenagh Kemp

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DNA evidence can be extremely compelling. With ongoing scientific advances and applications of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system, it is increasingly important that police, lawyers, and judges recognise both the limitations of DNA evidence and the strength of the evidence in particular cases. Because most forensic sciences are formally communicated via expert reports, we analysed the readability of 68 such reports of DNA evidence from 6 of 8 Australian jurisdictions. We conducted content analyses using three categories: content and sequence, language, and format. Categories contained qualitative and quantitative items drawn from theory and past research. Report styles differed by jurisdiction and by main audience - police and the courts. Reports for police were brief and few links were made between sections in these reports. Reports for courts were less brief and used either legal or scientific styles. Common sections in reports for courts included: the scientist's spec...

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The current research investigates the problems experienced by Kurdish students when developing their academic writing at the English Language Teaching Centre (ELTC) at the University of Sheffield. The aim of the study is to find out the major and minor problems faced by Kurdish students when undertaking academic writing. Moreover, it also aims to identify the relevant factors underlying their problems. Such an understanding of their problems and the proposed solutions will be beneficial for both Kurdish teachers and students. For this purpose, four research questions were proposed and the answers to these questions were provided and discussed. The scope of the study is to collect data from both teachers and Kurdish students from the ELTC. The data for the study were gathered through different mixed-methods: questionnaires, interviews and the collection of essays from the Kurdish students at the ELTC. The questionnaire and interview findings revealed that the students’ major problems are grammar, vocabulary and content knowledge. Moreover, their secondary problems are organisation, structuring, and sometimes spelling, as can be seen in the essays. Their minor problems are style and referencing. Additionally, the teachers in the interviews claimed that the Kurdish students are more descriptive than critical. Furthermore, according to the interview, the Kurdish students are similar to Eastern students in terms of their writing problems and they are not different from them. Moreover, the students’ writing ability developed dramatically during their stay in the UK and their period of study at the ELTC. Finally, according to the interview data, the best solution and a good suggestion for improving the non-native speakers’ (NNS’) writing could be through reading and practising the language independently.

Donna Bain Butler, Ph.D.

This article draws from empirical research into how international (EFL/ESL) lawyers develop plain legal style for clear communication in second language English writing. For lawyers operating internationally, communicating with clients across cultures implies a need for transnational legal and linguistic awareness. Whatever the form of legal writing, both legal skills and language skills acquisition forms a vital part of professional education and training in today’s global age.

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