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When we do research, we will often find value in the work of others. By sharing this information or ideas with our audience we can immediately establish trust from them. We can achieve this by rewriting these thoughts in our own words. When we are paraphrasing in our work it is important to keep the original meaning and facts intact. In many cases the sheer volume of the original work is reduced in form when being paraphrased. In some cases, you will only need to paraphrase a sentence, in other situations an entire paragraph will be your target. Being able to paraphrase properly is a key research communication skill. It displays that we have a good command on our sources. This also serves as a potent substitute for a direct quote, which in certain situations can flow much better. Sourcing our arguments is helpful because it adds a level of validation to what we are saying. Otherwise it may come across as an opinion. It also displays that you have control over and a high level of understanding of the source because you were able to write it in your own words. When you are about to paraphrase something make certain you fully understand what is being said, if anything is unclear ask someone who is knowledge of it.
The best way to approach paraphrasing is to start by reading the work a few times. Now write an original thought based on what you have read. Make sure what you write keeps the nature and tone the author was originally trying to create. When you complete your paraphrase make sure to include a citation of where the original source is given credit. These worksheets will help you learn how to use paraphrasing in your work.
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Printable paraphrasing worksheets, click the buttons to print each worksheet and answer key..
Paraphrasing means restating an author’s words in your own words without changing the meaning of the passage or including any interpretation of your own. When you paraphrase something, you only relay the idea expressed, not the entire quoted passage.
Read each passage. On a separate page, paraphrase each passage. Try not to look back at the original while you are paraphrasing.
Susan B. Anthony
Read Susan B. Anthony's speech below. Then paraphrase the speech.
Highlight the portion of the text that you would like to focus on. Then paraphrase the ideas on the notecard below.
Paraphrase each passage.
Read and Paraphrase
An onomatopoeia is a word that sounds like the sound it is trying to describe.
Paraphrasing with Synonyms
Rewrite each sentence below, replacing each underlined word with a synonym.
Read the assigned passage. Then answer the questions below.
Using Synonyms When Paraphrasing
Paraphrase Palma's speech for use in your article. Then complete the worksheet below.
Paraphrasing means restating what an author has said in your own words without changing the meaning of the passage or including any interpretation of your own. When you paraphrase something, you only relay the idea expressed, not the entire quoted passage.
As you conduct your research, fill out the questionnaire below for each of your sources.
A citizen is someone who is able to legally participate in a political community such as a state, country, or local government.
This American Government
I Used My Own Words! Paraphrasing Informational Texts
- Resources & Preparation
- Instructional Plan
- Related Resources
Paraphrasing helps students make connections with prior knowledge, demonstrate comprehension, and remember what they have read. Through careful explanation and thorough modeling by the teacher in this lesson, students learn to use paraphrasing to monitor their comprehension and acquire new information. They also realize that if they cannot paraphrase after reading, they need to go back and reread to clarify information. In pairs, students engage in guided practice so that they can learn to use the strategy independently. Students will need prompting and encouragement to use this strategy after the initial instruction is completed. The lesson can be extended to help students prepare to write reports about particular topics.
- San Diego Zoo: Animal Bytes
- National Geographic Kids: Creature Features
- Australia Zoo: Amazing Animals
From Theory to Practice
- Paraphrasing helps readers monitor their comprehension.
- Paraphrasing encourages readers to make connections with prior knowledge.
- Paraphrasing helps readers remember what they have read.
- In effective strategy instruction, the teacher explains the purpose of the strategy, how to use it, and when and where to use it
- In effective strategy instruction, the teacher models strategy use for students and provides guided practice before expecting students to use the strategy independently.
Common Core Standards
This resource has been aligned to the Common Core State Standards for states in which they have been adopted. If a state does not appear in the drop-down, CCSS alignments are forthcoming.
This lesson has been aligned to standards in the following states. If a state does not appear in the drop-down, standard alignments are not currently available for that state.
NCTE/IRA National Standards for the English Language Arts
- 1. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.
- 3. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).
Materials and Technology
- Computers with Internet access
- Whiteboard (or overhead) for projection of text and shared writing
- Print or digital texts on instructional levels of students in the class
- Individual copies of texts (if computers are not available)
- Demonstrate comprehension by paraphrasing facts from informational texts
- Gain knowledge and apply what they have learned about paraphrasing by reading information about three unusual animals
Session 1: Introduction of Paraphrasing
Session 2: review and guided practice with paraphrasing, session 3: review and guided practice with paraphrasing, session 4: review and independent practice with paraphrasing.
Paraphrasing is a good way to prepare students to write written reports. When students put information into their own words, they are not copying directly from a text. After the previous four sessions, a possible extension would be to identify another topic (such as countries, planets, plants), have students brainstorm what kind of questions would be interesting to answer about these, assign print materials or websites for students to read and paraphrase, take notes to answer the questions, and prepare written reports. These would be more formal than the quick writes that were done in the paraphrasing sessions.
Student Assessment / Reflections
- Throughout the sessions, when students are working in pairs or independently, make note of whether or not they are using their own words in paraphrasing. Be ready to intervene with additional modeling and practice if students are having difficulty paraphrasing.
- The quick writes at the end of the sessions should be collected to see whether students are using their own words, whether they have understood the text they read, and what information they have learned about the animals. Compare the prior knowledge that you assessed at the beginning of each session with the information included in the quick writes to see what new information has been learned.
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Language arts categories, free weekly worksheets, worksheets by email, what is paraphrasing.
People love to discuss something new every day. They gossip television shows, heard stories, news with the other persons. This talk further proceeds in the curiosity of what, how, and why the incident occurred? It happened between friends, family, and colleagues to refresh their minds. Whatever theme the discussion has included storyline, events, main characters, crucial points, considerations, etc. The author uses his or her own words or informal writing (under rules and regulations). All of such a structure of writing something or explaining something will be in your own words. During all of this process, you convey someone's message or express someone's ideas. Don't forget to maintain your ideas and source meaning while paraphrasing. You will use the main idea at the time of specific needs in your own words. How can you paraphrase a source? Give two or three times to read the original paragraph until and unless you understand it. After a thorough understanding, start writing the main idea by using your own words. Avoid generating the order of emphasis and ideas. Go through all unknown words. Observe each word that makes a clear sense of your writing. Check the tone of each paragraph, and it must be intuitive with a correct flow of understanding. Change as per the requirement, such as appropriate tone, meaning variation, and words or phrases related to the original words.
When you paraphrase, you restate an author’s words in your own words without changing the meaning of the passage or including any of your own thoughts or ideas about it. When you paraphrase something, you only relay the main idea, not the entire passage.
Paraphrasing from Sources
Read each passage. On a separate page, paraphrase each passage. Try not to look back at the original while you are paraphrasing.
: The passage below is from The Practice and Science of Drawing by Harold Speed. Read the passage. Then paraphrase what you have read.
Where Is It?
Highlight the portion of the text that you would like to focus on. Then paraphrase the ideas on the notecard below.
In Your Own Words
Paraphrase each passage.
Read the passage. Highlight what you think is most important. Then paraphrase the highlighted information below.
Paraphrasing and Synonyms
One strategy for paraphrasing is to use synonyms. Rewrite each sentence below, replacing each underlined word or phrase with a synonymous word or phrase.
What are the author’s main supporting points?
Rewrite each sentence below, replacing each underlined word with a synonym.
The passage below is taken from The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Paraphrase the passage.
50 million people in the U.S. eat fast food daily, which equates to about one in every seven people. It’s not surprising, then, the fast food restaurants have a combined revenue in the U.S. of $110 billion dollars every year.
What does the main character(s) decide to do about their problem?
Paraphrasing for Research
When You Do It!
When you paraphrase, you convey the main ideas of a passage in your own words. A paraphrase should contain all the most important information in a brief format. Use the organizer below to identify what you want to make sure that you include when you paraphrase the passage. Write your paraphrase below.
Minds in Bloom
By Rachel Lynette
Teaching Kids to Paraphrase, Step by Step
Start by Talking
- Reword – Replace words and phrases with synonyms whenever you can.
- Rearrange – Rearrange words within sentences to make new sentences. You can even rearrange the ideas presented within the paragraph.
- Realize that some words and phrases cannot be changed – names, dates, titles, etc. cannot be replaced, but you can present them differently in your paraphrase.
- Recheck – Make sure that your paraphrase conveys the same meaning as the original text.
At just 8.5 square miles, the Pacific island country of Nauru is one of the smallest countries in the world. The island was once rich in phosphate, but most of the resource has been mined, leaving damage to the environment behind. Nauru has a population of about 10,000 people.
Nauru is a Pacific island country that is only 8.5 square miles in area. It is one of the smallest countries on the planet and only about 10,000 people live there. Nauru has mined its once plentiful supply of phosphate. This has damaged the environment on the island.
Pulling It All Together
- paraphrasing from notes you have taken from the original text, rather than from the text itself.
- including quotes in your paraphrased writings.
- paraphrasing some parts and summarizing other parts.
- paraphrasing, summarizing, and including quotes all in one piece.
- using more than one source to paraphrase, summarize, and include quotes. (Throw in a bibliography, and what do you know? You’ve written an actual report!)
I apologize, but I had to remove all comments and disable commenting on this post because the topic attracts scores of bottom-feeders trying to drum up business for their unethical term paper writing services.
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[…] example, when children are learning about gravity, it’s unlikely that the best way to teach them would be through […]
[…] and Cassi at Minds in Bloom offer this advice when paraphrasing – think about the 4 […]
Purdue OWL® Exercises Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Paraphrase and Summary Exercises
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The exercises in this section provide opportunities for second language writers (ESL) of various proficiency levels to practice with paraphrase and summary writing.
Exercises in this section were developed by Kamal Belmihoub. Last Update May 29, 2014.
Basic-level Paraphrase and Summary Writing
Paraphrasing refers to rewriting a given sentence using your own words. When we need to use a sentence in our writing that someone else wrote, we paraphrase it. That is, we use the same idea(s) in that sentence and write it differently. In addition to using different words, we use different grammar. The main purpose of paraphrasing has to do with being able to use someone else’s ideas while we write our own texts. Of course, it is required that any writer acknowledges the original source using the proper citation format.
This paraphrase has too many words, such as “PayLess is closed because of” are repeated. It is important to use different words and grammatical structure, while keeping the same meaning of the original sentence.
As can be seen in the above example, in addition to using different words, the grammatical structure of the sentence was changed by starting with the second part (dependent clause) of the original sentence.
A summary should be a short version of a longer original source. Its main goal is to present a large amount of information in a short and concise text that includes only the most important ideas of the original text.
Intermediate-level Paraphrase Exercises
The inappropriate paraphrase is too close to the original sentence. Several words are the same and the complex structure of the sentence is the same. Deleting some words from the original sentence is not enough to write an appropriate paraphrase.
The appropriate paraphrase uses a different structure for the sentence, and most words are different from the original.
Paraphrase Summary Exercises List of Works Consulted
List of works consulted.
“American History Series: The United States Turns Inward After World War One.” Voice of America, 24 Nov. 2010. Web. 1 April 2013.
“Budgets Slash English Classes for Immigrants.” 8 Apr.. 2013. Web. 1 May 2013.
“Bullying.” Science Daily, n.d. Web. 30 May 2013.
“Business English Speakers Can Still be Divided by a Common Language.” Voice of America, 1 Mar. 2011. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
“Camaraderie of sports Teams May Deter Bullying.” Science Daily, 5 May 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
“Childhood Bullying Increases the Propensity to Self-Harm During Adolescence.” Science Daily, 28 May 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
“Exposure to Two Languages Can Have Far-Reaching Benefits.” Northwestern, 20 May 2009. Web. 1 May 2013.
“Global Economic Forum Rates Global Risks for 2013.” Voice of America, 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
“Let it Snow, Let it Snow, Let it Snow!” Voice of America, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
“Lifestyle Habits Lower Heart Failure Risk.” Science Daily, 13 Sep. 2011. Web. 30 May 2013.
“More Wins for TEA Party Activists, but Will They Win in November?” Voice of America, 17 Sep. 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
“Movies Become Big Business in the 1920s.” Voice of America, 7 Dec. 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
“New Anti-Cancer Components of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Revealed.” Science Daily, 27 Dec. 2008. Web. 30 May 2013.
“New Hampshire Chinese Language School Attracts non-Chinese Students.” 30 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 May 2013.
“Quitting Smoking: Licensed Medications are Effective.” Science Daily, 30 May 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
“Soccer Training Improves Heart Health of Men with Type 2 Diabetes.” Science Daily, 30 May 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.
“Tornado Season Returns, Voice of America.” Voice of America. 30 Apr. 2012. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
“What is the Human Relations Commission?” City of West Lafayette Indiana, 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
“Women Edge Past Men in Getting Doctorates, Voice of America.” Voice of America, 5 Oct. 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
“World’s Population Reaches 7 Billion Voice of America. 4 Jan. 2012. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
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Summarizing Worksheets & Activities
Summarizing is one of those skills that may seem very easy to a teacher but can be difficult for students who have not been properly taught how to summarize. For many years I did not even teach my seventh and eighth grade students how to summarize. I would just ask them to summarize texts and then get mad at them when they failed to produce quality summaries. I was wrong in doing this. Now I always teach my students how to write summaries.
Additionally, as per the Common Core State Standards, summaries should not contain opinions, background knowledge, or personal information; rather, a summary should be entirely text based. After years of learning to make connections between the text and themselves, students must be retrained to keep themselves out of their writing in regards to summaries. Teaching this skill surely warrants some of your class time.
Here are some resources that I used in my classroom to teach my students how to summarize. I hope that you find this page useful:
Summarizing Common Core State Standards
I want to express my gratitude for the work you have put into this site.
I have used your site for students for almost a decade now and they have not disappointed once.
Thank you for coming back!
I really appreciate these worksheets and all the worksheets you have published. I work as a volunteer for a literacy group, and we don’t have many resources at this level. I was an SLP so I have had no professional experience as a language arts teacher. These resources allow me to teach better and not have to create items from scratch.
thank you it was informative.
Thanks it was extremely helpful.
Absolutely fabulous. I’m using them for two employees who are struggling to summarise information. Very, very helpful – thank you.
Hello, can these great worksheets be linked to Google Classroom? Also, how can I have my students access the online assessments? Thank you.
There is a Google Classroom button on the title slide of each online assignment. Press this button to assign it. Google Classroom integration is pretty thin right now, but I’m hoping that they open up their platform more sometime soon!
Thank you, Mr. Morton, for sharing your tips and worksheets for summary teaching and writing practices. Very useful!
Some great activities, really helpful. One thing I want to point out is that shinobi-no-mono is NOT Chinese – this is Japanese. And in the text the characters given are Japanese, NOT Chinese. This is quite a big oversight. As language teachers we need to be aware of different languages.
Thank you. I appreciate the insight.
I want summary and practice sheets for grade 6
Please send me an answer key for the summarizing test.
Acutually 忍の者 isnt chinese the word の is japanses, while in chinese and japanese they call ninja , 忍者. Other than that this is some really good stuff to study my summary from
great material. I´ve been looking for this type of easy to read/ understand material for a long time.
Would it be possible to have the solutions to the test?
Thanks in advance.
These are wonderful!Thank you so much!
Thanks a lot .
DO YOU HAVE THE ANSWER KEY TO THE SUMMARIZING TEST?
Hello, I’m looking for the answer guide for the Summarizing test, please advise if it is available?
Thanks for your sharing. Invaluable resources for teachers. It would be highly appreciated if you can send me the key for the summary test.
Is there an answer sheet for the summarizing test?
Like many of the above comments, I was hoping that there was an answer key for the summarizing test.
I’m pleased that today is the day that I can finally say, “ Here you go .”
Thank you so much!!
Thank you very much. Bless you!
Thank you, Mr. Morton, for sharing these materials. Indeed this is of great help in my class.
The materials are awesome!! I’d like to separate them to two levels of my students. I’m teaching international students, the comparasion of the good and bad summary really works a lot. I really appriciate for your sharing. However, could you share the summarising answer keys as well? That would help me a lot. Thank you!
Would you consider making something for the 4th & 5th grade level? The examples were all very helpful, but many of my students read below grade level. Thank you again! Jill C.
Thanks from Toronto! Great help for ESL classes here.
Thanks so much from Istanbul! Kids loved it and saved me so much precious precious time
Thank you for your valuable help!
Thank you for putting all the material together.
I couldn’t find the answers for the Summarizing Test. They will surely save me some time. Please send them to me, or let me know where I can find them. Thank you so much,
Did you get the answer sheet?
Thank you for all the great materials to use, they will prove to be a great resource!
I was wondering if you would mind pointing out the source from which you pulled the information about ninjas for your worksheet on them. I just wanted to make sure I had the right information because from the bit of research that I pulled up, I see that both in history (concept / existence) and etymology, ninjas are Japanese. The Japanese use kanji, which are essentially Chinese characters, and is only one of the three different “alphabet” sets they use for written communication. So words like “shinobi” and “shinobi no mono” are all Japanese in origin, but written using Chinese characters and not really associated with Chinese culture. This is especially true because “no mono” is a Japanese phrase. Please let me know if there is a source that does say otherwise, so that I can have all the information. Thank you again!
Hello. I pulled that content from a Wikipedia page a long time ago. I’m no expert on the subject. I was just writing a worksheet that I hope would interest students.
These worksheets are helpful but the commenter above is correct, none of these words are or have ever been Chinese. “Shinobi” was in Japanese poems in the 8th century, not Chinese. Shinobi was the Chinese reading of the characters, but it was always a Japanese word. It might be helpful to fix this worksheet to avoid presenting incorrect information to students.
What is the answer key for summary test please?
Thanks a million for this Mr. Morton. This lesson will help me and my students understand summarizing better. God bless your sir!
Thank you so much for helpful material
What a phenomenal effort you’ve done in putting together all these. Appreciate your ideas. Fabulous!
How amazing to come across your Summarising resouces with explicit instructions. Your comments about teaching the students how to effectively summarise was the most important fact. This in turn forced me to reflect on my own teaching. Thank you for the step by step instructions, they were very valuable. Have you posted any other reading strategy hints?
Sure, I’ve posted them all around this site. Feel free to explore a bit.
What’s the reading level for summary worksheet 3?
Can I get answers for summarizing test about Gutenberg
It is an awesome sight.I got to now today from where the school gives us topics in worksheets.Very useful,but one problems that we don’t get the answers of the questions so that we can check and correct our answers
Mary Jane Dela Cerna
Good day Mr. Morton 😀 what is the answer keys for the summary test? I am not sure in my answer 😀
Wow, just wanted to thank you for your hard work and generosity to publish them for everybody. Thank you so much.
I was studying for an exam and couldn’t find enough information on summarizing. I was very excited when I found your site. It was very helpful.Thanks a million!
A terrific resource. Thank you so much for sharing. I came across your site as I was looking for help with teaching summarising – no need to look any further! Powerpoint and practice sheets, examples …. awesome.
Is there an answer key for the Test?
What an incredible site! Thank you for sharing your resources and ideas. Especially the Summary power point. I’ve been struggling to get my students to differentiate between a summary and a list of details. This will help so much!
I just discovered this site today. I teach high school ELL and was looking for good nonfiction texts that were accessible for my students. I will definitely be looking around some more and plan on using material in my lessons this week!
This was VERY helpful. Even for a university student who needed a refresher!
An answer key for the Summary would be helpful if provided. And also a whole passage summary, not just the summary for each paragraph.
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Paraphrasing and Summarizing Exercises with Answers
Paraphrasing and Summarizing are two skills that are highly useful for writers. With these two techniques, writers can get help creating their content and providing it to their readers in an easy-to-peruse way.
However, if you happen to be new to the field of writing, you could be a little unaware and untrained in both these skills. But don’t worry. Everyone starts out as a beginner.
In this post, we’re going to be looking at some paraphrasing and summarizing exercises along with their answers and explanations. By following along, you’ll get a good idea about how you can use these techniques in your own capacity.
What is Paraphrasing and Summarizing?
Before we get to the exercises, let’s digress a little and understand what paraphrasing and summarization actually are.
Let’s start with paraphrasing.
Paraphrasing is the process in which a particular piece of content is reworded and rephrased in such a way that it looks different from its original version but it has the same meaning and context.
A simple example of paraphrasing would be to change “John likes his cat” to “John adores his feline pet”. Paraphrasing can be as slight as merely changing some words in the text, or it can be as drastic as fully changing the tone, structure, order, and words of the content.
On the other hand, Summarizing is the process in which a piece of content is shrunk and shortened to about one-tenth of its original size. In this shortened version, the main idea and concept of the content is provided.
Summarization is usually used by authors and writers when they want to give a brief outline of a book or article to their readers.
Now that we’ve looked at the definitions of both, let’s move ahead to look at some exercises.
Paraphrasing Exercises (with Answers)
The main purpose of providing these exercises along with their answers is to help you understand what these techniques look like when they are implemented. Since we have explained their core definition above, you can try and work along the exercises to improve your skills a little as well.
Related: Difference Between Paraphrasing And Rephrasing
Paraphrasing Exercise # 1:
Here is a sample paragraph that we will be paraphrasing as an exercise. We’ll write the paragraph alone first, and then provide the answer after a brief explanation.
"John could not find the butter in his fridge. He went to buy some from the store. On coming back, he saw his cat sitting on the floor, smacking its lips. There was some yellow stuff smeared all around its face. Thus, John solved the mystery of the missing butter."
So, as we mentioned earlier, paraphrasing can be done simply and sparingly, or it can be done drastically.
One of the primary and basic ways of paraphrasing is to simply change some words in the provided content with their synonyms. This is, we reiterate, a very basic level of paraphrasing, and it is often very easy to see through it.
So, for this first exercise, we are going to be doing only that level of paraphrasing as a way to illustrate how it looks like.
Here is what the above paragraph looks like when paraphrased:
"John could not locate the butter in the refrigerator. He went to purchase some from the shop. On coming back, he observed his cat sitting on the ground, licking its lips. There was some yellow material smeared all around its face. Hence, John solved the mystery of the missing butter."
While we are on this discussion, it will also be salubrious to understand that when changing words with their synonyms for the purpose of paraphrasing, you have to be careful that you pick those that don’t mess up the context and intent of the lines.
Paraphrasing Exercise # 2:
Moving on, let’s look at another paraphrasing exercise. Here is the paragraph that we will be using for this one:
"John’s cat got lost in the forest. He went looking for it in the night time. He heard some movement in one of the bushes. He put his hand in and felt the fur. He pulled the thing out, thinking it to be his cat. After coming home, he realized it was an angry raccoon."
We mentioned in the last exercise that the basic level of paraphrasing is to change some of the words in the given text with their synonyms. And we also mentioned how that sort of paraphrasing can be easily detected.
So, for writers who want to paraphrase something in such a way that it does not resemble its original form a lot, there’s a step further that they can go, and that is to change the sentence structures + phrases.
Essentially, by changing the phrases used in the content as well as the arrangement of the sentences, the overall look of the paraphrased piece looks very different. If someone wants to go even ahead of that, they can shuffle the sentence order as well.
Considering this type of ‘extensive’ paraphrasing, here is the answer to the paragraph given above:
"John’s cat went missing in the forest. He went to search for it when it was dark. He discerned some movement in the hedge. After putting his hand inside it, he felt some fur. Thinking that it was his cat, he pulled the animal out. It was only after coming home that he realized that it was a frustrated raccoon."
Summarizing Exercises (with Answers)
Now that we have looked at the paraphrasing exercises, let’s move on to look at some for summarizing.
Just as we’ve looked at two types of paraphrasing above, we’ll also look at two different types of summarizing.
Actually, it’ll be better if we explain those two types before getting to the exercises.
Basically, there are two types of summaries . One of them is called extractive and the other is called abstractive .
In extractive summarization, the summary of a piece of content is generated merely by taking out some sentences from it and joining them together. This is usually the type of summaries that you get from automated tools.
When extractive summaries are created, there is no effort to understand the actual meaning and context of the text. Rather, the purpose is only to take some lines from it and join them together in such a way that they make sense.
On the other hand, abstractive summaries are those that are written using a completely new and different set of words, phrases and sentences than the content (that is being summarized). As opposed to extractive summarization, abstractive summarization involves understanding the meaning and context of the text, and then creating a completely new summary that features all those concepts and ideas.
Summarizing Exercise # 1 (Extractive)
In order to demonstrate and explain extractive summarization, we’re going to first write a paragraph here and then provide its summary afterwards:
"John’s car broke down. He stopped by the road side and screamed at people to stop and help him. But no one stopped for him. He continued howling and howling for hours. People kept driving by. After getting tired, he picked up a sheet and wrapped it around himself. Then, he started spinning on his spot. He grew dizzy. He kept spinning and spinning until he fell asleep."
Now, since we have to use the “extractive” summarization technique here, we’ll create the summary using the lines and sentences used in the content itself.
"John’s car broke down. But no one stopped for him. Then, he started spinning on the spot. He kept spinning and spinning until he fell asleep."
Summarizing Exercise # 2 (Abstractive)
For this exercise, we will use the same para that we did above. However, the technique used for the summarization will be different.
Since we will be using the abstractive technique here, the summary will be created using different words and phrases as the original.
"John’s vehicle went phut. But, no one stopped their car to help him. After he was tired, he made himself dizzy by spinning and then went to sleep."
So, that’s about it.
If you were a little confused about paraphrasing and summarization techniques, hopefully you’re a little more confident about them now.
These skills can come in handy for writers in a lot of different situations. If you don’t have the hang of them already, you should try and get it as quick as you can.