Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.
To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser .
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
Literature Review of School Bullying 1 Literature Review of Bullying at Schools
by Wilfrena Mae Lopez
- Access 47 million research papers for free
- Keep up-to-date with the latest research
- Share your research and grow your audience
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
- Find new research papers in:
- Health Sciences
- Earth Sciences
- Cognitive Science
- Computer Science
- Academia ©2023
Free Related PDFs
2015, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling
2021, Bullying Outline
Outline BULLYING IN SCHOOLS 1 Specific Purpose: To inform my classmates about the prevalence and dangers of bullying in schools Thesis Statement: Despite the numerous efforts put in place by the government, bullying has remained prevalent, leading to adverse impacts of depression, suicide, and dropout from schools. This outline offers a blueprint for analyzing the problem through the lens of its definition, precipitating factors, severity, impacts, and viable solutions.
2015, Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics
Iwona Gn , Shelley Hymel
This article provides an introductory overview of findings from the past 40 years of research on bullying among school-aged children and youth. Research on definitional and assessment issues in studying bullying and victimization is reviewed, and data on prevalence rates, stability, and forms of bullying behavior are summarized, setting the stage for the 5 articles that comprise this American Psychologist special issue on bullying and victimization. These articles address bullying, victimization, psychological se-quela and consequences, ethical, legal, and theoretical issues facing educators, researchers, and practitioners, and effective prevention and intervention efforts. The goal of this special issue is to provide psychologists with a comprehensive review that documents our current understanding of the complexity of bullying among school-aged youth and directions for future research and intervention efforts.
Valerie L Marsh
2018, White Paper
Although the bully-victim conflict is an age-old scenario, researchers only began studying it in school settings 45 years ago. The most agreed upon definition of bullying includes three criteria: 1) intentionality (desire or goal of inflicting harm, intimidation, and/or humiliation), 2) some repetitiveness, and most importantly, 3) a power imbalance between the socially or physically more prominent bully and the more vulnerable victim. The power differential can manifest among a variety of factors, such as physical dominance, self- confidence, peer group status, etc. Conversely, conflict between equals is not considered bullying, but rather, general aggression. Another, more recent concept that has emerged in the field of bullying research is the category of “bully-victims,” a smaller subset of youth who both perpetrate and experience bullying. The forms bullying can take include: direct aggression (e.g., name calling, hitting, belittling someone in front of others) or indirect, relational aggression (e.g., spreading rumors, exclusion from the group, hurting another’s reputation). Often occurring in school contexts, which has expanded in recent years to include cyberbullying in the virtual worlds of digital and social media, bullying takes place throughout the school years, from elementary to high school and has likewise been studied across the grades. And since bullying is a familiar, if not intimate, school experience for most people, it is sometimes easy or tempting to accept it as a rite of passage or a typical childhood experience, rather than a problem that needs to be addressed. As Olweus (2013) explains, “being bullied by peers represents a serious violation of the fundamental rights of the child or youth exposed” (p. 770). It is with this understanding of bullying – as a violation of basic human rights – that this two-part brief explores the phenomenon (history, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences) in Part I and reviews research- based interventions in Part II.
This article discusses school bullying, which sometimes occurs among schoolchildren, aiming to raise pupils’, teachers’, administrators’, and parents’ awareness of the problem. Within this framework, the definition, characteristics, frequency and types of school bullying, relation of bullying to sex and age, the negative effects of bullying on pupils, characteristics of bullies, victims, and bully/victims, the risk places at schools and the response of school staff to bullying are all examined. Finally, strategies to prevent bullying problems at schools are suggested. This work is based on a review of theliterature and because of the limited number of publications on the subject in Turkish, mostly work written in English is referred to.
2009, Revista de Cercetare şi Intervenţie Socială
The bullying is one of the most frequent forms of school violence which affects about one third of the students' population. Within the present paper, we wanted to present a short synthesis regarding the stage of the researches from the area by first analyzing the prevalence of the school violence and the existing differences according to variables like age and sex. Then, we proposed a conceptual clarification starting from the most well-known definitions and we described the main forms of bullying: physical, verbal and relational. ...
2000, Aggressive Behavior
Cecilia L . Calub
Jesus A Garcia
Bullying / School Violence Summary The issue of aggression problems and especially bullying in schools has fetched increased interest in the past few decades. Bullying/school violence is accompanied by a various effects some of which are physical and psychological. There is a disparity of aggression expression between males and females with males being most often implicated in exercising aggression in schools, unlike the female counterparts. The youth are the most vulnerable group to victimization. Schools represent a place where people of different orientation converge (Navarro, Larranaga & Yubero, 2011). Some groups of students such as gay, lesbian and bisexual students are often at a high risk of negative consequences such as suicidality, drug addiction and other school related difficulties (Birkett, Espelage, & Koenig, 2009). Bullying has been reported to results into a wide range of effects among student in schools. Some of these effects are unfavorable mental health, lower self-esteem, depression, anxiousness, and elevated rates of dodging behavior, with most of them ending up in smoking and drinking (Fitzpatrick, Dulin, & Piko, 2009). More alarmingly, bullying can result into deliberate self-harm among youths, many of whom may opt to cutting or burning themselves, jumping from high cliffs, self battery or even poisoning (Hay & Meldrum, 2010. The effects are far reaching and may negatively affect students’ performance and social life at school. School administration is responsible for creating an environment that is free from bullying. The school environment is significant for all children. Middle schools are said to posses the power to promote psychological functioning of adolescents. On the same capacity, middle schools can compromise the psychological functioning of the students (Birkett, Espelage, & Koenig, 2009). There are various methods that schools and the concerned authority can use to get rid of bullying in schools. Such include novel virtual learning strategy, anti-bullying intervention programme and use of peers as bystanders to ensure peaceful schools (Jodie & Erica, 2005; Christina, Ari & Marinus, 2005; Natalie, Sibylle, Maria, Dieter & Scott, 2011).
Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel , media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators.
Emanuela Ismaili, Dr.
2014, Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies
Journal of Pedagogy - Revista de Pedagogie
Psychology, Health & Medicine
2022, Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research
International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on the Dialogue between Sciences & Arts, Religion & Education
Jeffrey Sprague , Tary J Tobin , Shanna Hagan Burke
1998, Journal of Behavioral …
2010, Educational Researcher
Bully/victim problems among school children are a matter of considerable concern in Scandinavia and, more recently, in a number of other countries as well. Estimates based on the author's large-scale surveys indicate that some 9% ofthe students in grades 1 through 9 are fairly regular victims ofbullying and that 6-7% engage in bullying others with some regularity. It is argued that it is a fundamental democratic right for a child to be spared the oppression and repeated humiliation implied in bullying. The author has developed a school-based intervention programme against bullying, the effects of which were evaluated in 42 schools over a period of two years. Analyses indicate that the frequency of bully/victim problems decreased by 50-70%. In addition, the prevalence of antisocial behaviours in general such as vandalism, theft, drunkenness and truancy showed a substantial drop. The main content ofthe "core" programme as well as its key principles are presented. The overriding goal ofthe programme can be described as a "restructuring ofthe social environment". The programme emphasizes behaviours and attitudes characterized by a combination ofposi-tive involvement from teachers and parents, firm limits to unacceptable behaviour ("we don t accept bullying in our class/school"), and consistent use of non-hostile non-corporal sanctions on rule violations. Explanations ofthe positive results include changes in the opportunity and reward "structures" for bullying behaviour.
While there has been a keen interest and much research into why people bully and get bullied could it be that we as a society haven’t yet fully understood the issue? The very best bullying policies and plans are nothing without true role models who can reflect and model a way of being that is, at the very least, respectful and caring of others. If the adults who implement these policies are not living and therefore reflecting these qualities themselves, then the words, the rules, and the instructions are empty and devoid of any true meaning. We need adults and children to work together, with their unique insights and wisdom, to address the bullying epidemic we are now facing.
Pauline Hyland , Conor Guckin
Sandra Tsang , Bella Law
2011, The Scientific World JOURNAL
Alarmed by the controversies on bullying and the harm it can do in the lives of every affected children in elementary schools, this descriptive exploratory research was conducted. Identified in this study were children's perceptions and/or experience on bullying in terms of the : 1) the manner and forms; 2) frequency and place of occurrence; 3) who the bully/bullies are; 4) reasons for bullying; 5) effects on the bullied/victims; and 6) how the victims deal with it. The bullies' description of their behavior in terms of: 1) manner; 2) reasons; and 3) effect on them was also determined. Moreover, school authorities and parents' suggestions on how to stop bullying incidence in the school were taken. Based on the findings the following conclusions regarding the victims' experiences on bullying are given:1)Many schoolchildren are victims of physical bullying while some become targets of verbal, emotional, or social bullying; 2) Bullying happens at least once or twice a week; 3) Most bullies are boys; 4) Most children do not know why they are bullied, but they could sense that physical appearance, attitude, and better performance in the school that make them different from the bullies are some of the reasons; 5) The victims feel sad, could not concentrate on their studies, dislike going to school, developed hatred towards the bullies, and think that other do not like them; and 6)To deal with bullying, most schoolchildren just walk away from the bullies, tell them to stop, go with a crowd, or report the matter to school authorities and adults for help. About the bullies' experiences, it is concluded that: 1) Bullies do not like other children, so to show their dislike they avoid getting close to them and hurt them physically, verbally, and emotionally; 2) They bully simply because they do not like their targets/victims and have negative perception of the targets' attitude, physical appearance, popularity, talent, and performance in the classroom; and 3) Bullying has negative physical, psychological, and social effect on most bullies whereas others enjoy it and think that bullying has positive effect on them. Following are conclusions regarding the suggestions of schoolchildren, authorities, and parents to stop or reduce bullying in the school, most of them think that they should work together to stop cases of bullying: 1) conduct regular parents-teachers meetings; 2) hold campaigns/trainings/ forums on anti-bullying; 3) discipline the bullies and monitor their behavior; 4) ignoring the bullies; 5) report incidence of bullying; 6) make school and home bully-free; and 6) seek support of the community and police authorities.
2011, Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology
Bullying is an odious act experienced by an unacceptable number of school students. It continues to grow, and with much of the bullying behaviour remaining undetected, it continues to damage the lives of countless innocent victims. Bullying takes many forms and can have devastating effects. The emotional and psychological scars inflicted by a bully remain long after the initial wounds of the victim, be they physical or mental, have healed. Another major concern about bullying is that it undermines learning. Preventing and tackling bullying behaviour is a serious and demanding challenge of every school and its staff. It is the responsibility of the school to ensure that a safe environment is provided for all students, free from prejudice and hateful and bullying behaviour. The role of the teacher is crucial in detecting, identifying and dealing with bullying behaviour as early intervention and immediate action is crucial. This essay will discuss the key elements of bullying behaviour that every classroom teacher should be aware of in post-primary schools in order to aid the abolishment of this callous and superfluous behaviour from the education system.
Vanessa Hamilton, OCT
This paper is an attempt to understand the incidence of bullying. The first difficulty is to define what bullying is as well as its parties and several forms. Subsequently, theories that have traditionally been used to explain this complex phenomenon are presented. Likewise, a distinction between individual characteristics and social factors is made. Furthermore, the consequences of bullying are addressed with regards to all the parties: the bully, the victim, the bully-victim and the bystanders. Finally, applied interventions are provided as well as some new proposals made by researchers.
International Journal of Legal and Social Order
The phenomenon of bullying in educational institutions represents a threat to the entire educational endeavor and can manifest itself both physically and verbally, socially or online. The protagonists of bullying are: the aggressor, the victim and the observer. The typical profile of the aggressor is that of an irritable person, with poor self-control, vindictive, rigid, and the typical profile of the victim is that of a vulnerable, silent, solitary, insecure person, there being the submissive and defiant victim category. The effective prevention of bullying actions is possible in a multidisciplinary team effort, and the process must take place on multiple levels: individual, family, school, class, relational, curricular, by involving all professional and civil organizations, interest groups and companies that have a relationship with the school and students, including social services and organizations dealing with health and crime.
Mariann Buda , Erika Szirmai
Bullying has long been researched in different communities and cultures and has proven to be a phenomenon that seriously endangers individuals and communities as well. Among its consequences are different psychosomatic symptoms, deteriorating study or work performance, depression, suicidal ideation, unhealthy social climate or acts of crime. The present study presents some of the findings of a research carried out in 24 schools of Hajdú-Bihar County in 2008. The 1006 large sample of 5th and 7th grade students (age 11 and 13) answered questions on their bullying-related experiences and attitudes. Data were collected in a questionnaire on types of bullying, prevalence, students’ mood, feeling of well-being and their social environment. Findings show that similarly to results of earlier research a large number of students are involved in bullying. In the sample the most common types are name-calling and ostracism, whereas beating and threatening are less frequent. Correlations with age, gender and academic performance show that the younger age-group is more involved in beating and spreading gossip, girls in relational bullying, and academically weaker students are most often involved in bullying events. Variables of mood, feelings of well-being, social and study climate are analyzed with a focus on studying correlations between feelings and relations within the smaller communities. Victims appear to be in the worst position on all measures, including number of friends, stress, emotions towards school or social climate. However, they show a more positive attitude for studying than bullies or bully-victims.
2011, The Educational Forum
Bullying is a worldwide concern and erroneous perceptions of the phenomenon could underscore unsustainable interventions. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to examine, in-depth, how some high school teachers from two schools in New Jersey perceived student bullying. The primary research question was: What perceptions do teachers have about student bullying? The main data were from face-to-face interviews with 14 teachers who answered semi-structured, open-ended questions. Secondary data originated from physical artefacts. The data analysis consisted of four phases. Inductive analysis allowed for the composition of individual cases. Cross-case analysis allowed data classification into three main areas of inquiry aligned with the three secondary research questions (a) bullying and victimisation dynamics as perceived by teachers, (b) adequacy of current interventions, and (c) adequacy of teachersí professional development for bullying mitigation. The data unveiled inconsistencies between causes of bullying and interventions. It culminated in recommendations for leadership and suggestions for future research.
2018, Nordic Studies in Education
As early as 1969, the Swedish physician Peter-Paul Heinemann introduced the Swedish term mobbing and then later on, mobbning (translated as “bullying” in English), in Sweden through a debate article (Heinemann, 1969) and then later, and in greater depth, in his book Mobbning: Gruppvåld bland barn och vuxna (Heinemann 1972). With reference to the ethologist Konrad Lorenz (1968), from whom he also borrowed the term mobbing, Heinemann assumed that bullying was a form of group violence toward deviant members. The term and his ideas became widespread in Sweden in 1969 through a series of articles in one of Sweden’s most influential daily newspapers, Dagens Nyheter (Larsson 2008; Nordgren 2009).
jozef bushati , ledia kashahu
2014, Journal of Educational and Social Research
Paul Horton , Camilla Forsberg
How Bullying Can Happen ? Systematic Literature Review of Bullying at the Elementary School Level
- Zuhri Ruslan STIE Nusantara, Indonesia
- Kiki Rezkiani Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia
Many child abuse cases have gotten attention lately because of the high frequency of occurrence and severity of the cases. This study aims to investigate incidents before and when the bullying happened, the role of schools and parents in bullying, and how to stop bullying. The research method employed was a systematic literature review. The research revealed that bullying happens when there is a lack of teacher supervision and the victim has often been bullied. The bully is often bigger, older, in numbers, and attacks suddenly. The role of parents is to behave after receiving reports of bullying from children. In order to prevent bullying from happening, a program against bullying (anti-bullying) needs to be introduced in schools. The program should target all layers, namely, the students, teachers, staff in the school environment, and parents. The more anti-bullying programs are launched, the more effective they will be in preventing the recurrence of bullying cases.
How to Cite
- Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Journal of Education and Teaching Learning (JETL)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .
Literature Review On Bullying
A review of a literature review on bullying.
Bullying is a very negative offense that is described as “repetitive behavior that harms or hurts another person physically, socially or emotionally; and is an imbalance of power in which the target cannot stop the behavior and defend themselves” (National Bullying Prevention Center, 2016e, para, 2). Additionally, it creates major problems for everyone in general, and all those who are involved, principals, social workers, teachers, and the schools. According to NBPC, research and statistics have proven that bullying tends to change, if not ruin the lives of many people in a harmful or tragic manner. Many long or everlasting detrimental effects occur as a result of bullying. Poor mental health, behavior disorders, and loss of academic interest or skills have been associated to bullying. Additionally, there is a strong correlation between school violence and suicide. It is crucially important for students and their families to understand that there are many resources and help available. According to research, the effects of bullying can distort or destroy the lives or future of many innocent victims. To broaden the perspectives and knowledge on bullying, this paper will focus on its definitions, roles of bullying, characteristics and environmental factors that influence and develop bullying. Finally, I hope to describe prevention or intervention resources and programs, which have been effective in teaching parents and students how to
Antibullying Movement : Anti-Bullying As A Social Movement
3.2 million students from 6th to 10th grade are victims of bullying every year. 90% of 4-8th graders say they have been bullied. 1 in 10 students drop out of school because of bullying. Approximately 160,000 students skip school every day because of bullying. (Cohn and Canter, Ph.D.) These facts just inforce the reality that bullying is prevent throughout America and is causing damage to the education experience of American children.
Psy 315 Week 2 Stop Bullying
One child out of two in grades four thru twelve have all reported being bullied. The cases of bullying being reported does trend down as the child gets older (Stop Bullying.gov). Children and teens that are abnormal or considered to be different from others seem to be targeted by the bully most frequently. The LGBT community (gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender), individuals who are obese, students with disabilities, or students known to be weak or viewed as inferior are the most frequently under attack. The LGBT community is more likely to have ideation or attempt suicide because of bullying than their heterosexual classmates (Suicide Prevention Resource Center, 2014).
Bullying : Are Schools Doing Their Part?
Bullying is bound to happen anywhere at any time but occurs mostly within school limits. Kathleen Winkler defines bulling in her book, Bullying, as “...any kind of ongoing physical or verbal mistreatment, done with the intent to harm, where there is an imbalance of power between bully and victim” (Winkler 14). Bullying has an extremely important impact on one’s everyday life and can affect their life negatively getting to the point where they can no longer take the blow. To try and prevent bullying from taking place in schools, one needs to know how bullying effects a person, what the role of each person involved in the situation is, and have knowledge of specific methods on how to prevent it. Bullying in schools is a serious problem and a handful of school do their part to prevent it; others, not as much, which means there is room for improvements.
Bullying 101 Research Paper
Over the years bullying has become a problem. It affects kids to even adults. Bullying is a problem here a Buhach and the students should be aware of how to handle a bully. Don’t think that it can’t happen to you because bullying can happen to everyone regardless of your age.
Bullying: Annotated Bibliography
The results and consequences of bulling in all sorts of format (verbal, cyber or physical)
Annotated Bibliography On Bullying
The current study shows the extent of a nontraditional form of peer aggression—cyberbullying which can also be related to suicidal ideation among children and teenagers. A random sample was done in 2007 1,963 middle-school students were chosen from one of the largest school districts in the United States to complete a survey of Internet use and experiences. Children who experienced traditional bullying or cyberbullying, was an offender or either a victim that had more suicidal thoughts; and more likely to attempt suicide than those who had not experienced forms of bullying. The bullied victims was more strongly related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors than the offenders.
Bullying In America
To deny the existence of bullying throughout the nation, especially within the brick walls of school, is to be ignorant. Bullying is a huge issue that is evident in may schools throughout America. Seventy percent of students throughout schools in America have said that they have witnessed bullying. A total of forty-nine percent of student in grades 4-12 have reported getting bullied at least once a month. Parents have to constantly worry about their child getting picked on while at school. One out of every four students, equalling to around twenty percent, are bullied every year. Around fifty-five million children throughout the United States are attending school this year, many whom are getting bullied.
The Punishment Is The Third Leading Cause Of Death For Young Adults Essay
When it comes to bullying nearly everyone has heard of the old saying, “kids will be kids.” This was during the time when this behavior only happened on the playground. With a changing society the term bullying has also been altered. No single factor puts a child at risk of being bullied or bullying others. Bullying can happen anywhere. The term bullying is defined as, “unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real
Bullying: A Wide Spread Epidemic In Our Country
Bullying is a wide spread epidemic in our country. Almost everyone will be bullied at some point in their life. Bullying happens for many reasons and can have fatal consequences if it is not handled.
Bullying And Suicide : A Public Health Approach
In recent years, we have heard more and more about bullying and the alarming effects it has on our society. Bullying is defined by the Center for Disease and Control (CDC) as “any unwanted aggressive behavior(s) by another youth or group of youths who are not siblings or current dating partners that involves an observed or perceived power imbalance and is repeated multiple times or is highly likely to be repeated.” (“Featured Topic: Bullying Research” ) There are many forms of bullying, including but not limited to physical bullying, verbal bullying, and cyber and text bullying. The adverse effects can cause severe damage to the victim, including both physical and mental health issues as well as academic issues. Numerous studies
Childhood Bullying Research Paper
* Do something the bully does not expect or want: yell, blow a whistle, laugh
How Bullying Affects Victims
(What is Bullying." Bullying . N.p., 2017. Web. 5 Apr. 2017)According to Americanspcc.org the main idea about bullying is the percent of American kids that have been bullying or the percent of students that bullying others and the consequences of it. According to this page 28% of the U.S students in grade 6-12 experience bullying; also they say that 6% of students in grade 6-12 experience cyberbullying, and 55.2% of LGBT students experience cyberbullying. In conclusion Americanpcc.org says that most of the people that had been
One Of The Different Types Of Bullying In The United States
Bullying there are many different types of bullying. Getting bullied is one of the worst things that can happen to you. Bullying is one of the most common things that happen in the united states. Only 43% of middle school kids and high school kids survey from not getting bullied that is a problem in the U.S.A. the bullying i will be talking about is physical bullying, Cyber bullying, Verbal bullying,social bullying. I have got this information from “types of bullying/ kids help phone”.
Is Bullying A Big Issue In Today's Society?
Ever since technology has become such a big part of people’slives cyberbullying has become a type of bullying. According to Stop Bullying, “Cyberbullyingtakes place over digital devices like cell phones, computers, and tablets.” Cyberbullying can occuranywhere from social media apps, text messages, and emails. One out of five students report that they have been bullied which is about twenty percent ofstudents. Out of the twenty percent that say they have been bullied thirty three percent of thatgroup says that they get bullied at least once or twice a month at school. The hallways andstairways has the biggest percent of reported bullying cases at forty two percent. Bullying insidethe the classroom is thirty four percent of reported bullying incidents. Bullying happens outside onschool grounds and on the school bus have a percentage of twenty nine percent of the reports. Thecafeteria, bathrooms, and locker rooms take up thirty one percent of the bullying reports. Bullyingcan basically happen anywhere on school grounds and sometimes teachers have no
- Open access
- Published: 05 February 2022
Risk factors of school bullying and its relationship with psychiatric comorbidities: a literature review
- Gellan K. Ahmed ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-5830-4117 1 , 2 ,
- Nabil A. Metwaly 3 ,
- Khaled Elbeh 1 ,
- Marwa Salah Galal 4 &
- Islam Shaaban 3
The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery volume 58 , Article number: 16 ( 2022 ) Cite this article
School bullying is described as violence to other people. It is perpetrated at schools or other activities when the power of a student or a group of students is used to injure others or other groups.
The prevalence of school bullying is varied from one country to another. There are many types of bullying, such as physical, verbal, social relations, psychological, sexual, and cyber-bullying. Many risk factors could affect school bullying, especially individual, peer and parent factors. Researches found that adults who had school bullying are more vulnerable to develop future psychiatric disorders.
School bullying is one of the crucial problems among pupils. The wide range of the prevalence of school bullying may be due to different methodologies and the presence of many risk factors. It is recommended to have long-term researches about the student with bullying behavior. Also, prevention programs are required to increase knowledge and early detection of affected students to prevent future psychiatric disorders.
School bullying is the most prevalent kind of youth violence that has become a significant concern for pupils and a global public health issue [ 1 ]. Bullying is defined as “a type of aggressive behavior in which someone else causes injury or discomfort intentionally and repeatedly [ 2 ].
Bully’s strength is based on physical strength, age, financial position, and social and technical competencies [ 3 ].
Bullying in school is distinct from other forms of violence, as well as from simple interpersonal conflict between students in three ways [ 4 ].
Intention to cause harm.
Repetition of the harmful acts.
The power imbalance between the bully (perpetrator of bullying) and the bullied (victim). The bullying perpetrator has an advantage over the victim, such as physical strength and size, social position, authority, and popularity.
Prevalence of bullying
Despite the intrinsically hard task of estimating the prevalence of bullying due to different measures used in different studies, researchers generally agree that bullying is a widespread and significant problem in today’s schools [ 5 ]
Studies in Arab countries
A Cairo-based study evaluating the prevalence of violence among elementary-aged schoolchildren found that public and private schools experienced different violence. For example, 76% of public school children reported experiencing physical violence, while 62% of private school children reported experiencing physical violence [ 6 ]. In 2019, another Egyptian study, done by Galal and his colleagues looked at rural schools to discover the proportion of bullies among middle and high school students. The researchers found that 9.5% of the students surveyed were bullies [ 7 ]. Another study reported prevalence rate of bullying behaviour among 280 elementary students in Sohag at Egypt was about 12.5% [ 8 ].
Few studies have been done to determine the frequency of bullying in the Arab world. According to the Global School-based Students Health Survey, middle school students in 19 low- and middle-income countries have an average rate of 34.2 percent for peer victimization, with rates of 44.2 percent in Jordan, 33.6 percent in Lebanon, 31.9 percent in Morocco, 39.1 percent in Oman, and 20.9 percent in the United Arab Emirates [ 9 ].
International prevalence of bullying
A meta-analysis of 80 studies from various countries focused on students in grades six through eight has found that bullying involvement rates can range from 9 to 98%, with the average rate being 35% [ 10 ].
Victimization rates were reported to range from 2 to 66% in China, while perpetration rates varied from 2 to 34% (Chan and Wong 2015). Another study reveals that bullying is widespread in Southeast Asian countries, as the prevalence rate was 1% to 7.7% [ 11 ].
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [ 12 ] report shows that making educational environments violence-free and creating a safe learning environment for all children is still a top priority for the world. However, according to this report, bullying and other forms of violence affect one third of young people. Still, the rates of bullying victimization differ depending on which region is in question.
Bullying comes in various ways and styles [ 13 ]
Physical bullying includes slapping, kicking, and punching.
Verbal bullying includes things such as name-calling, taunting, threatening, racial slurs, name-calling, cursing, and more.
Psychological bullyings such as harassment, intimidation, and humiliation.
Bullying in social relations Social rejection or preventing people from engaging in certain activities.
Sexual bullying Threats or sexual touching, use dirty words, or being grabby.
Cyber-bullying When someone uses texts, social networks, or hacking to ridicule or intimidate someone.
Direct and indirect bullying are the two general categories of bullying types. In the face-to-face form of bullying, there are physical attacks and verbal harassment. Indirect bullying includes social exclusion, spreading rumors, and similar passive-aggressive behaviors. Therefore, in other words, direct bullying involves aggressive tactics, such as bullying, humiliating, and ridiculing, while more subtle bullying methods are trying to hurt someone socially, get others to avoid them, and keep others in the dark about who did it [ 14 ].
Direct bullying has been observed in young children, where direct physical abuse has been substituted progressively with verbal bullying [ 15 ]. Different forms of bullying are seen as stemming from gender-based differences. Female students engage in verbal bullying more often than male students, whereas male students employ direct physical bullying [ 16 ].
In the group-related bullying process, school students are members of various social groups, and they take on multiple roles, such as bullying perpetrators, victims, and witnesses, to reinforce the hierarchy [ 17 ].
There are different roles related to both the bully and the victim, and some of these roles increase the chance that bullying will happen—these positions as [ 17 ].
Ringleader bullies: they are persons who are planning, over a long time, to harm the victim again and again.
Assistants: they are followers who aid the bully and engage in aggression against friends.
Reinforcers: these are persons who pay attention to the bully and smile or laugh during the act of bullying.
Defenders: they are persons who help the victim to feel better or to intervene to stop this act.
Victims: they are the target of peer attack and feel they cannot defend themselves easily from a bully.
Bystanders observe students: who are both bullies and victims
Risk factors of school bullying (see Table 1 )
Individual risk factors.
Since girls and boys can both be bullies and victims of bullying, research has found that boys are more likely than girls to be bullied [ 18 ]. The gender disparity in bullying is more significant for direct actions of bullying such as physical assault or threats. However, this relationship is less significant for indirect bullyings such as rumor propagation or social isolation [ 19 ].
Nearly 24% of females reported being bullied, while only 18% of males reported this. A similar pattern occurred with rumors: 15% of females compared to 9% of males reported being targeted. However, males (5%) have reported threats of harm more than females (3%) (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
The rate of bullying decreases as children age, from primary to high school [ 20 ]. Bullying is most common in middle school, but research shows that it is at its highest in schools as students prepare to enter high school (i.e., between elementary and mid-school and middle schools and high school)[ 21 ].
Bullying involvement is an intercultural and ethnic phenomenon. For example, research has shown that school students who belong to an ethnic minority are more likely than an ethnic majority to be harassed [ 22 ].
Higher levels of victimization have involved increased disparities between socioeconomic status within one country [ 23 ].
Bodybuilding and physical characteristics
Powerful men tended to be bullies, according to [ 19 ]. According to Unnever and Cornell (2003), bullies in the United States are taller and more robust than their peers. Male students detected a significant quadratic association (U-Shaped) between the bodyweight status and the harassment, while female students did not [ 24 ].
These results imply that underweight and obese boys are more likely than their average-weight peers to become bullied, reflecting the theory of conflict that a bullying victim is often different from the majority [ 25 ].
Being a bully is commonly seen to be associated with externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, defiant, disruptive, or delinquent), whereas being a victim is associated with internalizing behavior (e.g., anxiety, depression, or poor self-esteem) [ 18 ].
There was a widespread belief that low self-esteem leads to aggression, including bullying. Despite the fact that (weakly) negative self-related insight is linked to bullying, the chances of being a pure unvictimized bully are not greater [ 18 ]. Research suggests that narcissism, arrogance, and callous emotional traits (such as a lack of empathy and shame) are more closely linked to bullying than previously assumed [ 26 ].
Popularity and social skills
A "social relationship problem" has been used to describe bullying [ 27 ]. Indeed, victims, bully-victims, and some bullies have social skills deficiencies [ 18 ].
Even if many classmates do not necessarily like them personally, bullies can be seen among their peers as popular, influential, and “cool” [ 28 ]. In addition, bully members are often central and have friends in their peer networks. Like other people who engage in and affiliate with similar behaviors [ 29 ], teenagers can strengthen the coercive behavior of the other.
The connection between bullying and academic performance is difficult. Previous studies vary whether bullies are slightly low or significantly low in school performance. The study investigated 46 schools’ exam results and found that peer bullying was associated with lower achievement, especially if teased students missed school and missed educational opportunities [ 30 ]. Three African nations included 12–16 years who were enrolled in a Trend Studies in Mathematics and Science class. According to their findings, bullying is both a significant problem in all three countries, and is a significant and common factory related to poor academic performance [ 31 ].
Students with conduct disorders are more likely to be bullied but bullying can be retaliatory in response to bullying [ 32 ].
Peer group risk factors
Peer group norms
If members of a peer group participate in bullying, the others experience it. In addition, students who were bully perpetrators were more likely to come from socially significant peer groups [ 33 ].
The influence of peers was a significant predictor of participation in harassment; Negative peer influence was linked to bullying and being victimized [ 18 ]. In addition, research shows that having a delinquent record (i.e., vandalism, membership in a gang, and bringing a weapon to school) correlates with higher levels of bullying and victimization [ 34 ].
High pro-social behavior and low social anxiety benefit academic success, because it helps students avoid getting bullied or victimized and thus succeed academically [ 35 ].
Bullying and alcohol/drug abuse are known to be linked. For example, a study of adults in the United States discovered that bullying was significantly associated with lifetime alcohol and drug use. Thus, involvement in bullying is linked to both concurrent and future alcohol/drug use [ 36 ].
School risk factors
Adults play an important role in creating a positive or negative environment in schools. If the school environment is not good and unhealthy, bullying and related problems are widespread [ 37 ]. Bullying and victimization, on the other hand, are less prevalent when students are challenged and motivated to do well in school [ 38 ].
The role of the teacher is critical in the fight against bullying in the classroom [ 39 ]. Teachers' responses to bullying will vary depending on their individual beliefs and attitudes.
Some teachers regard bullying as a normal behavior that may aid children in developing social skills and believe it is unnecessary to intervene, because they do not sympathize with the victim [ 40 ].
Furthermore, teachers will not likely interfere with bullying when they perceive that conduct is not bullying or when there are other occurrences of hidden forms such as relational or verbal bullying or when teachers do not perceive the behavior as bullying [ 41 ].
Schools are an amalgamation of many classrooms and there is an incentive for reducing bullying and victimization in healthy a classroom environment. A study identified four key characteristics that predict bullying in classrooms: (1) negative peer relationships, (2) poor teacher–student relationships, (3) a lack of self-control, and (4) poor problem-solving abilities among students [ 42 ].
Those who bullied others in primary school had lower rates of school affiliation than those who had been or had not been bullied victims [ 43 , 44 ].
Parental risk factors
Researchers have found that bullies are more likely to come from families, where there is little cohesion, little warmth, absent fathers, high power needs, and a tolerance for aggressive behavior. They may also have experienced physical abuse as well as being from low socioeconomic status families with authoritarian parents [ 45 ].
The mothers of the male victims were overprotective, controlling, restricting, coddling, overinvolved, and warm, whereas their fathers were aloof, critical, absent, indifferent, negligent, and domineering. Female victims, on the other hand, had hostile moms who denied or rejected affection, threatened and dominated them, and fathers who were careless and carefree [ 18 ].
Being raised in a home, where the parents fought, drank, used drugs, and were physically or sexually abusive predicted bullying and bullying victimization in children [ 43 , 44 ]. A lack of parental guidance and conflict in the home are common themes among bullies [ 18 ].
Community risk factors
Neighborhood characteristics have a significant impact on bullying behavior [ 18 ]. For example, bullying thrives in neighborhoods that are unsafe, aggressive, and unorganized. Conversely, living in a safe, connected neighborhood was associated with lower levels of bullying and victimization [ 7 ].
Societal risk factors
Decades of research have been conducted to determine whether exposure to violent video games, television, and film is linked to higher levels of aggression. Indeed, meta-analyses of these studies show that media violence is associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior [ 46 ].
Diagnosis of bullying behavior
Criteria of bullying behavior.
Psychometric Scales for the bullying behavior
Criteria of bullying behavior.
A list of features used to identify bullying [ 47 ]: Bullying is widely accepted to be a subcategory of aggressive behavior defined by the three minimum criteria listed below:
Intent to hurt (i.e., the harm caused by bullying is deliberate, not accidental).
Power disparity (i.e., bullying includes a real or perceived power inequity between the bully and the victim).
Long-term repetition (i.e., more than once with the potential to occur multiple times).
To supplement the above-mentioned criteria, the following two additional criteria have been proposed:
victim distress (victim suffers mild to severe psychological, social or physical trauma).
incitement (bullying is motivated by perceived benefits of their aggressive behaviors).
Scales for the bully: There are many scales used to assessed bully behavior, such as.
Bullying behavior Scale for children and adolescents [ 48 ]: It is 40 items that used to measure the frequency of self-reported perpetration in different forms of Bullying for Youth 8–18 years.
Aggression Scale [ 49 ]: It is 11 items that used to assess the frequency of self-reported perpetration of teasing, pushing, or threatening others for Youth 10–15 years.
Bullying behavior Scale [ 50 ]: It is six items that are used to assess bullying behavior at schools for Youth 8–11 years.
Modified Aggression Scale [ 51 ]: It is nine items that used to assess bullying behavior and anger for Youth 10–15 years.
Scales for the victim
Gatehouse bullying Scale [ 52 ]: It is 12 items that used to assess overt and covert victimization for Youth 10–15 years.
Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire [ 53 ]: It is 44 items that used to assess the frequency, seriousness, and duration of bully victimization in primary and secondary school; bully-related psychological trauma, suicidal ideation if bullied, and bullying in college and the workplace for young adults/Adults 18–40 years.
Perception of Teasing Scale (POTS) [ 54 ]: It is 22 items that used to measure the frequency and effect of teasing and bullying for youth 17–24 years.
Scales for the bully-victim
Olweus Bullying Questionnaire: It is 39 items that used to assess the frequency of bully perpetration and victimization for Youth 11–17 years.
School life survey [ 55 ]: It is 24 items that used to assess the frequency of physical, verbal, and relational bullying as both the perpetrator and the victim for Youth 8–12 years.
School relationships Questionnaire [ 56 ]: It is 20 items used to assess the victimization and perpetration of direct and relational bullying/ aggression for Youth 6–9 years.
Illinois Bully Scale [ 57 ]: It is 18 items that used to assess the frequency of bullying behavior, fighting, and victimization by peers for youth 8–18 years.
The effects of bullying behavior
The consequences of bullying are extensive, not only to the individuals involved in these conflicts but for society more widely. Scientific research indicated that experiencing bullying has a short and long-term psychological and emotional impact on both victims and perpetrators [ 58 , 59 ]. Also, there are many effect of bullying behaviour that different if happen for childern or adolescents (see Tables 2 , 3 ).
Effects on the bully
Effects on the victim
Effects on the school community
Effect on the society
Psychiatric comorbidities with bullying
Bullying is a distressing experience that often lasts for years, persists into adulthood, and correlates with current and future psychiatric issues [ 66 ]. If the bullying (or being bullied) does not stop or interfere with functioning at school or with friends, pupils should be assessed for potential psychiatric issues [ 67 ].
Comorbidity of these disorders [such as depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] occurs among children involved in bullying [ 68 ]. At the same time, it is comparatively uncommon in nonbullied children. In addition, separation and generalized anxiety disorder, dysthymia, depression, and panic disorder may be found in the results of an examination of a child who has been the victim of bullying [ 67 ].
During adulthood, victim and bully-victims males are at an increased risk for anxiety and personality disorders characterized as histrionic and paranoid [ 69 ].
Bullying can begin early in life and persist into adulthood, leading to poor mental and physical health and compromised interpersonal relationships [ 70 ].
The consequences of childhood bullying and the correlates of bullying in adulthood can be examined through studies that use adult samples [ 71 ]. However, to date, few longitudinal studies have examined general population adult correlates of bullying.
A study in Finland followed bullied elementary school boys into adulthood. This study claimed that bullying could have significant social and psychological effects over time. Boys who bullied others showed that adults are much more prevalent than their unbullying counterparts in antisocial personality disorder, criminality, and convictions [ 72 ].
Bullying in childhood is also associated with an increased risk of substance abuse (alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine use disorder), depression, and anxiety in adulthood. In addition, the results indicate that having a psychiatric disorder can increase your risk of being bullied as a youth [ 72 ].
Suicide is the second highest cause of mortality among adolescents aged 15 to 29 [ 73 ]. Students who have been bullied are twice as likely to have suicidal thoughts and are 2.6 times more likely to attempt suicide than students who have not been bullied [ 74 ]. In addition, Suicidal conduct is reported by students, whether they are bullies, victims, or witnesses [ 73 ]. In 2014, About17.7% of school-aged kids attempted suicide due to bullying behaviour, according to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) [ 75 ].
These negative consequences highlight the importance of further research into bullying to develop effective intervention strategies. We must first comprehend violence and bullying to prevent them. Examining the individuals involved in bullying would be a good first step toward understanding.
Prevention and management
Some of these consequences can be avoided with immediate intervention and long-term follow-up. Schools, families, and communities must work together to understand bullying and its consequences, as well as to discover solutions to reduce, and eventually eliminate, bullying in schools and communities [ 60 ]. Therefore, The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) put prevention and management program to bullying behaviour (for details see Tables 4 , 5 ).
In 2018, UNICEF showed that 70% of Egyptian children aged 13–15 are bullied; as a result, Egypt adopted draught revisions to prohibit bullying [ 76 ]. Fortunately, in recent years, there have been several initiatives as well as individual attempts to combat bullying. Egypt started its first nationwide campaign in 2018, pushing children, parents, and caregivers to speak up against bullying and providing suggestions and guidance on how to deal with it [ 77 ]. In addition, the first legal judgement of its kind was given in Egypt in july,2020 with two defendants sentenced to 2 years in prison and fined EGP 100,000 (about $6,250) [ 78 ].
Anti-bullying campaign in Egypt, funded by the European Union and coordinated by the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM), the Ministry of Education and Technical Education and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). They want to create a safe atmosphere for kids by raising awareness about bullying and how to deal with it through a child protection programme [ 76 ]. Some issues may be needed to solve to help this program to fit Egyptian culture such as need for supervisory bodies to monitor teachers and pupils behaviour, need for educational courses for parents and teachers about bullying and having cooperation between school authorities and specialized psychiatrists to treat the problem of bullying with the presence of mental illnesses.
School bullying is one of violence form that could be a major concern for pupils and a global public. The wide range of the prevalence of school bullying may be due to different methodologies and the presence of many risk factors. It is recommended to have long-term research about the student with bullying behavior. Also, prevention programs are required to increase knowledge and early detection of affected students to prevent future psychiatric disorders.
Availability of data and materials
Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no data sets were generated or analyzed during the current study.
Perception of Teasing Scale.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
National Center for Educational Statistics: Student Reports of Bullying and Cyberbullying: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Victimization Survey. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2016056 . 2016.
American Psychological Association: Bullying. (2020). Accessed Accessed on 25–8–2020 from : https://www.apa.org/topics/bullying .
Gladden RM, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Hamburger ME, Lumpkin CD. Bullying surveillance among youths: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements, version 1.0. 2014
Bauman S, Del Rio A. Preservice teachers’ responses to bullying scenarios: Comparing physical, verbal, and relational bullying. J Educ Psychol. 2006;98(1):219.
Article Google Scholar
Zych I, Ortega-Ruiz R, Marín-López I. Cyberbullying: a systematic review of research, its prevalence and assessment issues in Spanish studies. Psicología Educativa. 2016;22(1):5–18.
Ez-Elarab HS, Sabbour SM, Gadallah MA, Asaad TA. Prevalence and risk factors of violence among elementary school children in Cairo. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2007;82(1–2):127–46.
PubMed Google Scholar
Galal YS, Emadeldin M, Mwafy MA. Prevalence and correlates of bullying and victimization among school students in rural Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2019;94(1):1–12.
Ahmed GK, Metwaly NA, Elbeh K, Galal MS, Shaaban I. Prevalence of school bullying and its relationship with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: a cross-section study. Egypt J Neurol Psychiatry Neurosurg.
Fleming LC, Jacobsen KH. Bullying among middle-school students in low and middle income countries. Health Promot Int. 2010;25(1):73–84.
Article PubMed Google Scholar
Modecki KL, Minchin J, Harbaugh AG, Guerra NG, Runions KC. Bullying prevalence across contexts: a meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. J Adolesc Med. 2014;55(5):602–11.
Sittichai R, Smith PK. Bullying in south-east Asian countries: A review. Aggress Violent Beh. 2015;23:22–35.
United Nations Educational SaCO: School violence and bullying : Global status and trends, drivers and consequences. Paris: UNESCO. 2018. https://hivhealthclearinghouse.unesco.org/library/documents/school-violence-and-bullying-global-status-and-trends-drivers-and-consequences .
Quiroz H, Arnette J, Stephens R. Bullying in schools: Discussion activities for school communities. California: National School Safety Center; 2006.
Merrill RM, Hanson CL. Risk and protective factors associated with being bullied on school property compared with cyberbullied. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1–10.
Tsorbatzoudis H, Travlos AK, Rodafinos A. Gender and age differences in self-reported aggression of high school students. J Interpers Violence. 2013;28(8):1709–25.
Smith PK. Bullying: definition, types, causes, consequences and intervention. Soc Pers Psychol Compass. 2016;10(9):519–32.
Jan A, Husain S. Bullying in elementary schools: its causes and effects on students. J Educ Pract. 2015;6(19):43–56.
Cook CR, Williams KR, Guerra NG, Kim TE, Sadek S. Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. Sch Psychol Q. 2010;25(2):65–83.
Farrington D, Baldry A. Individual risk factors for school bullying. Journal of aggression, conflict and peace research. 2010.
Smith PK, Madsen KC, Moody JC. What causes the age decline in reports of being bullied at school? Towards a developmental analysis of risks of being bullied. Educ Res. 1999;41(3):267–85.
Pellegrini AD, Long JD, Solberg D, Roseth C, Dupuis D. Bullying and social status during school transitions. In: Handbook of Bullying in Schools. Routledge; 2009. p. 209–20.
Jimerson SR, Swearer SM, Espelage DL. Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective. 2009.
Due P, Merlo J, Harel-Fisch Y, Damsgaard MT, Soc MS, Holstein BE, et al. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: A comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):907–14.
Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar
Unnever JD, Cornell DG. Bullying, self-control, and ADHD. J Interpers Violence. 2003;18(2):129–47.
Greenleaf C, Petrie TA, Martin SB. Relationship of weight-based teasing and adolescents’ psychological well-being and physical health. J Sch Health. 2014;84(1):49–55.
Fanti KA, Kimonis ER. Bullying and victimization: the role of conduct problems and psychopathic traits. J Res Adolesc. 2012;22(4):617–31.
Pepler D, Craig W. Understanding and Addressing Bullying: An International Perspective PREVNet Series. Author House; 2008.
Reijntjes A, Vermande M, Thomaes S, Goossens F, Olthof T, Aleva L, et al. Narcissism, bullying, and social dominance in youth: a longitudinal analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2016;44(1):63–74.
Sentse M, Kiuru N, Veenstra R, Salmivalli C. A social network approach to the interplay between adolescents’ bullying and likeability over time. J Youth Adolesc. 2014;43(9):1409–20.
Barboza GE, Schiamberg LB, Oehmke J, Korzeniewski SJ, Post LA, Heraux CG. Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: an ecological perspective. J Youth Adolesc. 2009;38(1):101–21.
Anton-Erxleben K, Kibriya S, Zhang Y. Bullying as the main driver of low performance in schools: Evidence from Botswana, Ghana, and South Africa. 2016
Rose CA, Swearer SM, Espelage DL. Bullying and students with disabilities: the untold narrative. Focus Except Child. 2012;45(2):1–10.
Lodder GM, Scholte RH, Cillessen AH, Giletta M. Bully victimization: selection and influence within adolescent friendship networks and cliques. J Youth Adolesc. 2016;45(1):132–44.
Bradshaw CP, Waasdorp TE, Goldweber A, Johnson SL. Bullies, gangs, drugs, and school: understanding the overlap and the role of ethnicity and urbanicity. J Youth Adolesc. 2013;42(2):220–34.
Brewer SL Jr. Addressing youth bullying through the whole child model. Education. 2017;138(1):41–6.
Gaete J, Tornero B, Valenzuela D, Rojas-Barahona CA, Salmivalli C, Valenzuela E, et al. Substance use among adolescents involved in bullying: a cross-sectional multilevel study. Front Psychol. 2017;8:1056.
Kasen S, Johnson JG, Chen H, Crawford TN. School climate and change in personality disorder symptom trajectories related to bullying: A prospective study. Bullying in North American schools. Routledge; 2010. p. 181–201.
Pörhölä M, Almonkari M, Kunttu K. Bullying and social anxiety experiences in university learning situations. Soc Psychol Educ. 2019;22(3):723–42.
Yoon J, Bauman S. Teachers: A critical but overlooked component of bullying prevention and intervention. Theory Into Practice. 2014;53(4):308–14.
Kochenderfer-Ladd B, Pelletier ME. Teachers’ views and beliefs about bullying: Influences on classroom management strategies and students’ coping with peer victimization. J Sch Psychol. 2008;46(4):431–53.
Bilz L. On the accuracy of German teachers’ identification of pupils involved in bullying. In: 31st International Congress of Psychology, 24–29 July 2016, Yokohama, Japan. Chichester: Wiley; 2016. p. 462.
Doll B, Song S, Champion A, Jones K. Classroom ecologies that support or discourage bullying. Bullying NAm Schools. 2011;2:147–58.
Swearer SM, Espelage DL. Expanding the social–ecological framework of bullying among youth: Lessons learned from the past and directions for the future. Bullying in north American schools. Routledge; 2010. p. 23–30.
Swearer S, Espelage DL, Vaillancourt T, Hymmel S. What can be done about school bullying? linking research to educational practice. Educ Res. 2010;39:38–47.
Duncan RD. Family relationships of bullies and victims. Bullying in North American schools: Routledge; 2010. p. 211–24.
Mares M-L, Kretz V. Media effects on children. 2015
Burger C, Strohmeier D, Spröber N, Bauman S, Rigby K. How teachers respond to school bullying: An examination of self-reported intervention strategy use, moderator effects, and concurrent use of multiple strategies. Teach Teach Educ. 2015;51:191–202.
El-Desoky M. Bullying Behavior Scale for children and adolescents. 2016.
Orpinas P, Frankowski R. The Aggression Scale: a self-report measure of aggressive behavior for young adolescents. J Early Adolesc. 2001;21(1):50–67.
Austin S, Joseph S. Assessment of bully/victim problems in 8 to 11 year-olds. Br J Educ Psychol. 1996;66(4):447–56.
Bosworth K, Espelage DL, Simon TR. Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. J Early Adoles. 1999;19(3):341–62.
Bond L, Wolfe S, Tollit M, Butler H, Patton G. A comparison of the Gatehouse Bullying Scale and the Peer Relations Questionnaire for students in secondary school. J Sch Health. 2007;77(2):75–9.
Schäfer M, Korn S, Smith PK, Hunter SC, Mora-Merchán JA, Singer MM, et al. Lonely in the crowd: recollections of bullying. Br J Dev Psychol. 2004;22(3):379–94.
Thompson JK, Cattarin J, Fowler B, Fisher E. The perception of teasing scale (POTS): a revision and extension of the physical appearance related teasing scale (PARTS). J Pers Assess. 1995;65(1):146–57.
Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar
Chan JH, Myron R, Crawshaw M. The efficacy of non-anonymous measures of bullying. Sch Psychol Int. 2005;26(4):443–58.
Wolke D, Woods S, Bloomfield L, Karstadt L. The association between direct and relational bullying and behaviour problems among primary school children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Disciplines. 2000;41(8):989–1002.
Article CAS Google Scholar
Espelage DL, Holt MK. Bullying and victimization during early adolescence: Peer influences and psychosocial correlates. J Emot Abus. 2001;2(2–3):123–42.
Gini G, Pozzoli T. Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2013;132(4):720–9.
Swearer SM, Hymel S. Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward a social-ecological diathesis-stress model. Am Psychol. 2015;70(4):344–53.
Wolke D, Lereya ST. Long-term effects of bullying. Arch Dis Child. 2015;100(9):879–85.
Sigurdson JF, Undheim AM, Wallander JL, Lydersen S, Sund AM. The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence on externalizing and internalizing mental health problems in adulthood. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2015;9:42.
Copeland WE, Wolke D, Angold A, Costello EJ. Adult psychiatric outcomes of bullying and being bullied by peers in childhood and adolescence. JAMA Psychiat. 2013;70(4):419–26.
Moore SE, Norman RE, Suetani S, Thomas HJ, Sly PD, Scott JG. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Psychiatry. 2017;7(1):60–76.
Gini G, Pozzoli T. Association between bullying and psychosomatic problems: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):1059–65.
Klomek AB, Sourander A, Elonheimo H. Bullying by peers in childhood and effects on psychopathology, suicidality, and criminality in adulthood. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015;2(10):930–41.
Kumpulainen K. Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2008;20(2):121–32.
Glew G, Rivara F, Feudtner C. Bullying: Children hurting children. Pediatr Rev. 2000;21(6):183–90.
Kumpulainen K, Räsänen E, Puura K. Psychiatric disorders and the use of mental health services among children involved in bullying. Aggress Behav. 2001;27(2):102–10.
Coolidge FL, Segal DL, Estey AJ, Neuzil PJ. Preliminary Psychometric Properties of a Measure of Karen Horney’s Theory in Children and Adolescents.
Oliver R, Hoover JH, Hazler R. The perceived roles of bullying in small-town midwestern schools. J Couns Dev. 1994;72(4):416–20.
Ireland JL, Power CL. Attachment, emotional loneliness, and bullying behaviour: A study of adult and young offenders. Aggres Behav. 2004;30(4):298–312.
Sourander A, Jensen P, Rönning JA, Niemelä S, Helenius H, Sillanmäki L, et al. What is the early adulthood outcome of boys who bully or are bullied in childhood? The Finnish “From a Boy to a Man” study. Pediatrics. 2007;120(2):397–404.
World Health Organization. Preventing Suicide: A Global Imperative. 2014.
Davis SNC. The youth voice project. http://njbullying.org/documents/YVPMarch2010.pdf . 2010.
Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin SL, Flint KH, Kawkins J, Harris WA, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance–United States, 2013. MMWR supplements. 2014;63(4):1–168.
The United Nations Children's Fund U: Protecting children from violence in school. https://www.unicef.org/protection/violence-against-children-in-school . 2021.
MARINA M: How We Can Stand Against Bullying in Egyptian Schools. https://egyptianstreets.com/2021/09/07/how-we-can-stand-against-bullying-in-egyptian-schools/ . 2021.
EgyptWatch: Bullying and racism rise in Egypt. https://egyptwatch.net/2020/09/23/bullying-and-racism-rise-in-egypt/#:~:text=Last%20July%2C%20the%20first%20judicial%20ruling%20of%20its,Sudanese%20child%20in%20a%20popular%20neighbourhood%20in%20Cairo . 2020.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Authors and affiliations.
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Gellan K. Ahmed & Khaled Elbeh
Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK
Gellan K. Ahmed
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Al-Azhar University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt
Nabil A. Metwaly & Islam Shaaban
Department of Psychiatry, Sohag Mental Health Hospital, Sohag, Egypt
Marwa Salah Galal
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
GA and MS searched,collected papers and were the contributors in writing the manuscript. IS, NM and KE revised review, and manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Correspondence to Gellan K. Ahmed .
Ethics approval and consent to participate.
No ethical approval was obtained or required for the purposes of this review.
Consent for publication
The authors declare no conflicts of interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ .
Reprints and Permissions
About this article
Cite this article.
Ahmed, G.K., Metwaly, N.A., Elbeh, K. et al. Risk factors of school bullying and its relationship with psychiatric comorbidities: a literature review. Egypt J Neurol Psychiatry Neurosurg 58 , 16 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41983-022-00449-x
Received : 06 October 2021
Accepted : 14 January 2022
Published : 05 February 2022
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/s41983-022-00449-x
Share this article
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative
- Risk factors
- Psychiatric comorbidity