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How to do APA footnotes

Footnotes are a way for the author to provide additional content to their papers without distracting the reader from the text. The information in footnotes is different from the information provided in APA annotated bibliographies . Footnotes can be content based, providing a little more insight on an idea you raise in the text, or they can be used to provide copyright attribution for long quotes and passages.

Properly formatted APA footnotes can be placed at the bottom of the page. Alternatively, you can put them on their own page after the references. This guide on footnotes, end notes, and parentheticals provides information about the differences between these different types of notes. Either way, it’s important to know how to use footnotes properly.

In this guide, students can learn about the different uses for footnotes as well as how to format footnotes according to APA Style. All of the information here comes straight from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual .

Why use footnotes? What information goes into them?

There are two primary reasons why an author would use footnotes:

1. Using a footnote for content

As mentioned above, there are a few different ways to use footnotes. The more common way is when an author wants to provide extra insight on an idea without disrupting the flow of the text. This is called a content footnote.

In this case, you would write a a couple sentences about the extra insight. For example:

______________________

1 This data refers to the situation in 2010, and it includes emissions from industrial processes. Emissions from the latter are released during the physical and chemical transformation of materials like clinker production. Since these industrial production processes are also consumers of energy, here we made the choice to combine them with CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

2. Using a footnote for copyright attribution

When you are reproducing a portion of a copyrighted work, like an extended passage from a book or journal, it is necessary to provide copyright attribution. This can be done inside a footnote. The footnote is used instead of a parenthetical in-text citation, and you will still need to add the source as an entry in the reference list.

If it is an image or graph you are reproducing, copyright attribution can go in the figure note or table note.

A copyright footnote should start with “ From ” or “ Adapted from ” and the format will change slightly depending on the source.

Here is a template for copyright attribution for a website followed by two examples:

1 From  Webpage title , by Group Author OR Author FirstMiddleName Initials. Author Surname. Year Published, Website Name (URL).

*Note: If the Group Author and Website Name are the same, omit the Website Name slot.

2 From  First images from the James Webb Space Telescope , by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2022 (https://www.nasa.gov/webbfirstimages).

3 From  Question of what now for Syria remains as vexed as ever , by M. Chulov. 2022, The Guardian (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/jul/19/question-of-what-now-for-syria-remains-as-vexed-as-ever).

Endnotes vs. footnotes: What’s the difference?

According to APA Style, the author may choose to place the footnotes on the bottom of the page on which the callout appears or at the end of the paper on their own page(s).

“Endnotes” is a function on many word processors that inserts callouts and place the notes at the end of the document. While this is the same idea as footnotes, APA calls for a specially-formatted footnotes page.

To place the footnotes at the end of your document, check the preferences of the footnote function. You should be able to select “End of Document” instead of “End of Page.”

How to format APA footnotes

Always use the footnotes function of your word processor to insert footnotes. This will make it much easier to keep track of everything even as page content changes.

How to format footnotes correctly:

  • Always use the footnotes function.
  • The callout should be in superscript, like this. 1
  • The callout should come after the punctuation, like this. 2
  • If there’s a dash 3 —the callout comes before the punctuation, not after.
  • All callouts should appear in numerical order, like this. 4

APA footnotes example

Now let’s have a look at what properly formatted APA footnotes look like in action.

Here is an example of a concise, relevant, and properly formatted footnote from “The role of renewable energy in the global economy transformation,” published in Energy Strategy Reviews.

. . . A transition away from fossil fuels to low-carbon solutions will play an essential role, as energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent two-thirds of all greenhouse gases (GHG). 1

In this example, the footnotes function automatically created a dividing line at the bottom of the document. It has also reduced the font size by 1pt, which is neither required nor discouraged by APA.

The reason this is a good example, however, is because the footnote provides supplemental information that is both relevant and substantive.  The information would have been too distracting to appear in the main text, but it provides helpful insight on the author’s research method.

Published October 28, 2020.

APA Formatting Guide

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You can include more than one footnote on the same page in APA style. There is no restriction on the number of footnotes to be included on a page. Depending upon the number of footnotes on the page, the text area of the page will be automatically adjusted to fit the footnotes.

Footnotes in APA are used to provide the reader some additional information about the idea or the element being discussed. Footnotes are used in all types of publications such as journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers.

Two types of footnotes are used in APA style: content footnotes and copyright attribution footnotes. A content footnote provides additional explanation or information about something mentioned in the text, while a copyright attribution footnote provides copyright information for lengthy content that has been reprinted in the text. For both types, the in-text citation remains the same. Remember the following guidelines when you want to cite a footnote:

  • Footnotes (whether content footnotes or copyright attribution footnotes) are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.
  • Use superscript Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) to designate a footnote callout.
  • This is a footnote. 1
  • In this footnote, 2 the author tries to clarify the idea.
  • A footnote callout—unlike in-text reference citation 3 —is simple to add.
  • You should not add space before the footnote callout.
  • If you want to refer to the same footnote again in the text, do not add any superscript Arabic numeral. Instead, write “see Footnote 3.” In this case, the footnote description need not be given again.

Note that a footnote should have only one idea. If you want to add more information, it is advisable to add the content in the text or create an appendix.

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A footnote is a brief note that provides additional content or copyright attribution.  Any type of paper may include footnotes.  They are not used for references in APA style.

Content footnotes

  • Supplement information in the text
  • Should be included only if they strengthen the discussion

Copyright attribution

  • Copyright attribution is required in a footnote when reproducing lengthy quotations or test/scale items in text
  • Copyright attribution is used instead of in-text citation, but a reference list entry is required
  • Format and examples: Concise guide to APA style , p. 209-210

For further information see the APA Manual p. 40.

Appendices can be used to supplement the paper's content.  Include an appendix only if it helps readers understand, evaluate or replicate the study or theoretical argument.

Appendices are added after the reference list.

For more information see the APA Manual p. 41.

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APA Footnotes

  •   Jennifer Janechek
  • Use footnotes to insert additional, related information into an APA-style document.
  • Use Content Footnotes to concisely provide further information on a topic that is not directly related to the text.
  • Use Copyright Permission Footnotes to cite adapted or reprinted materials such as data sets or particularly lengthy extracts of text from another author.

apa footnotes template

When should footnotes be used?

The APA suggests two instances in which footnotes may be used:

  • Content Footnotes:  to offer further information on a topic that is not directly related to the text. As content footnotes should be concise, avoid writing lengthy paragraphs or including extraneous information.
  • Copyright Permission Footnotes:  to cite adapted or reprinted materials in the paper, especially data sets, tables, and quotations that exceed 400 words. Consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) for more information about copyright permissions.

It is recommended to refrain from extensive usage of footnotes as this practice may distract or confuse readers. When applicable, incorporate additional information in the main text of the paper, but avoid inserting irrelevant material. Footnotes should briefly present the reader with meaningful information that enhances your argument.

How should footnotes be formatted?

Footnotes may be displayed in one of two ways:

  • Listed at the bottom of the relevant page
  • Assembled altogether on a new page, following the References page(s)

If the footnotes are compiled on a separate page, the title “Footnotes” should be centered at the top of the page. Avoid formatting the title with bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks. Indent the first line of each footnote five spaces from the left margin, and double-space the entire page. Each footnote number should be formatted as a superscript, and should be situated after all punctuation marks excluding a long dash (—).

Let’s look at some examples of using footnotes in a sentence:

  • Example 1 – Content Footnote : “Under the DSHEA (1994), dietary supplements no longer receive approval from the FDA before being marketed unless the supplement contains a new dietary ingredient. 1 ”

1 A new dietary ingredient is defined as dietary ingredients that were not marketed in the United States in a dietary supplement prior to October 15, 1994.

  • Example 2 – Content Footnote : “The questionnaire (see Supplementary material 3 ) was comprised of 4 parts: student perception regarding content of nutrition education; duration of time spent on nutrition education; preferred education approach to nutrition; and demographics.”

3 Supplementary data are available on the journal Web site ) or may be purchased from the Depository of Unpublished Data, Document Delivery, CISTI, National Research Council Canada, Building M-55, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada. DUD 5396.

  • Example 3 – Copyright Permission Footnote : “ Trust in authority was measured using four items drawn from models of motive-based trust (Tyler & Huo, 2002). 2 ”

2 From the chapters “Motive-Based Trust and Decision Acceptance” and “Societal Orientations: Legitimacy and Connections With Society” in Trust in the Law: Encouraging Public Cooperation With the Police and Courts , by Tom R. Tyler and Yuen J. Huo, 2002, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Copyright 2002 by the Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Reprinted with permission.

Compiling footnotes at the end of your paper

Below is an example of how you might format your footnotes if you compile them on a separate page at the end of your paper.

For more information about referencing sources in APA:

  • Formatting In-text Citations (APA)
  • Formatting the References Page (APA)

[1] Dodge, T., & Kaufman, A. (2007). What makes consumers think dietary supplements are safe and effective? The role of disclaimers and FDA approval. Health Psychology , 26(4), 513-517. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.26.4.513

[2] Gramlich, L. M., Olstad, D., Nasser, R., Goonewardene, L., Raman, M., Innis, S., & … Roy, C. (2010). Medical students’ perceptions of nutrition education in Canadian universities. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism , 35(3), 336-343. doi:10.1139/H10-016

[3] De Cremer, D., & Tyler, T. R. (2007). The effects of trust in authority and procedural fairness on cooperation. Journal of Applied Psychology , 92(3), 639-649. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.639

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What Are Footnotes? | Guide with Word Instructions

Published on March 28, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 7, 2022.

Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of the page in a piece of academic writing and indicated in the text with superscript numbers (or sometimes letters or other symbols). You can insert footnotes automatically in Word or Google Docs . They’re used to provide:

  • Citations in certain styles
  • Additional information that would disrupt the flow of the main text

What Are Footnotes

Table of contents

How to insert footnotes in word and google docs, numbering and placement of footnotes, footnotes in chicago style, footnotes in apa style, footnotes in mla style, frequently asked questions about footnotes and endnotes.

If you’re writing in Microsoft Word or in Google Docs, it’s easy to insert footnotes automatically using the built-in functionality of the software.

Most style guidelines are flexible enough that these automatically inserted footnotes meet their requirements, so that you don’t have to worry about the specifics of formatting.

Inserting footnotes in Word

It’s straightforward to insert footnotes in Word. Just follow these steps:

  • Click on the point in the text where you want the footnote number to appear.
  • Select the “References” tab at the top, and then select “Insert Footnote.”
  • Type whatever text you want into the footnote that appears.

Inserting footnotes in Google Docs

You can also easily add footnotes in Google Docs. Follow the steps below:

  • Click on the point in the text where you want to add a footnote.
  • At the top, click on “Insert” and then on “Footnote” in the drop-down menu.
  • Type the text you want into the footnote.

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Footnotes should be numbered consecutively in the order they appear throughout your paper. Each note should have a unique number; don’t use the same number again even if you cite the same source repeatedly.

Footnote numbers are usually placed at the end of the relevant clause or sentence. The number appears after any punctuation, except when the clause ends with an em dash , in which case the number appears before it. Don’t add a space before the number.

Chicago style uses footnotes for citations (unless you’re following Chicago author-date ). Footnotes can also be used to add extra information such as commentary on the source cited, or elaborations on a point you touched on in the main text.

In Chicago footnotes , you place a footnote at the end of the clause or sentence that needs a citation. The footnote contains full information about each source the first time you cite it, and shortened information for subsequent citations of the same source.

       1. Tegan George and Jack Caulfield, “Academic Integrity vs. Academic Dishonesty,” March 10, 2022, https://www.scribbr.com/plagiarism/academic-dishonesty/.

 2. George and Caulfield, “Academic Integrity.”

Full information about all your sources is usually included in a bibliography at the end, except in very short papers, where footnote citations may be used alone if your institution allows it.

Chicago recommends using your word processor’s built-in footnote function to add footnotes, but a couple of formatting details may need to be changed manually:

  • Add an indent at the start of each footnote (before the number).
  • Write the number at the start of the note in normal text (not superscript), followed by a period and then a space.
  • Leave one blank line between footnotes, and make sure footnotes are single-spaced.

APA footnotes are used only for providing extra information, since APA in-text citations appear in parentheses instead.

You can use them to provide supplemental information such as additional examples or clarifications; do this sparingly, as APA warns against including nonessential information. Footnotes are also used to provide copyright attribution when it’s needed.

               1 From What Parents Can Expect in Behavior Therapy , by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017 (https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/infographics/what-parents-expect.html). In the public domain.

              2 A second round of testing was initially planned, but this idea was abandoned due to …

APA recommends using your word processing software to automatically insert footnotes, but add an indent at the start of each footnote if this isn’t done automatically. The footnote begins with the superscript footnote number followed by a space.

MLA footnotes are used to provide supplemental information such as extra examples, clarifications of citation practice, or elaborations on ideas.

MLA in-text citations appear in parentheses, not in notes, but where a lot of citations are needed at once, they can be placed in a footnote to avoid cluttering the text.

           1 Citations of marginalia refer to George’s edition and include page numbers. Citations of the poem refer to Davis’s edition and include line numbers.

        2 This remains a controversial point. Researchers in the field have debated this issue since …

            3 See Crittenden 5–11; Kent 17–34; Smith 44–50; and Jones 36.

MLA recommends using your word processor to automatically insert footnotes, styling the number at the start of the citation in superscript, followed by a space. An indent should also be added at the start of the footnote (before the number).

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page they refer to. This is convenient for the reader but may cause your text to look cluttered if there are a lot of footnotes.

Endnotes appear all together at the end of the whole text. This may be less convenient for the reader but reduces clutter.

Both footnotes and endnotes are used in the same way: to cite sources or add extra information. You should usually choose one or the other to use in your text, not both.

Footnotes are notes indicated in your text with numbers and placed at the bottom of the page. They’re used to provide:

  • Citations (e.g., in Chicago notes and bibliography )

Be sparing in your use of footnotes (other than citation footnotes), and consider whether the information you’re adding is relevant for the reader.

To insert a footnote automatically in a Word document:

  • Click on the point in the text where the footnote should appear
  • Select the “References” tab at the top and then click on “Insert Footnote”
  • Type the text you want into the footnote that appears at the bottom of the page

If you need to change the type of notes used in a Word document from footnotes to endnotes , or the other way around, follow these steps:

  • Open the “References” tab, and click the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the “Footnotes” section.
  • In the pop-up window, click on “Convert…”
  • Choose the option you need, and click “OK.”

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Caulfield, J. (2022, June 07). What Are Footnotes? | Guide with Word Instructions. Scribbr. Retrieved October 29, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/what-are-footnotes/

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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

Note:  This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .

APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.

When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.

When using the footnote function in a word-processing program like Microsoft Word, place all footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page). Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote. Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Double-space throughout.

Content Notes

Content notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing content notes, be brief and focus on only one subject. Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.

Content notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.

Copyright Permission Notes

If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s). All other sources simply appear in the reference list.

Follow the same formatting rules as with content notes for noting copyright permissions. Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.

If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit written permission along with your work. Begin the citation with “ Note .”

Note . From “Title of the article,” by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title , 21, p. 122. Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission.

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APA Footnotes – Formatting, Copyright & Examples

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APA-footnotes-Definition

One of the most common citation style guide manual for research papers or academic papers is the APA style . A significant part of this citation style guide are in-text citations and references in author-date style. However, sources can also be formatted as footnotes based on APA 7th edition. APA footnotes allow researchers to add supplementary information to their work without interrupting the flow of the text. This article delves into the format and proper use of APA footnotes.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 APA footnotes — In a Nutshell
  • 2 Definition: APA footnotes
  • 3 Formatting APA footnotes
  • 4 APA footnotes: Copyright footnotes
  • 5 APA footnotes: Content footnotes

APA footnotes — In a Nutshell

  • APA footnotes are not mandatory. However, you can use them to provide additional information and copyright attribution.
  • APA footnotes have different formatting rules, depending on where you place them.
  • You can place them at the end of a specific page or on a separate page after the reference page at the end of your paper.

Definition: APA footnotes

APA Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page in a research paper that includes sources that have to be referenced properly. They also serve as comments on a designated part or section of the text on the page. Typically, the APA style is a citation formatting style in research that mostly demands in-text citations in author-date style. APA footnotes use superscript numbers that typically appear in consecutive order and should follow any punctuation except a dash.

Formatting APA footnotes

You can format footnotes in APA style by using superscript numbers and placing them in consecutive order. Also, the footnote numbers should appear at the end of the sentences or clauses on which they are intended to provide more content. They come after the period or other punctuation (except the dashes ). If the text   ends with a dash , the   footnote   should come   before the   dash .

Note: if the footnote relates to the content in the parentheses , the footnote must be placed enclosed by the parentheses.

  • Footnote at the end of the sentence:  The data from the samples is consistent with the information in the literature review. 2
  • Footnote within parentheses: (Whose daily exercise schedule does not relate to each other 3 )
  • Footnote before a dash: While the productivity levels were significantly low – the data was measured using several methods 3 – like.

APA footnotes should not be repeated . Therefore, if you need to refer to a source that is already cited as a footnote, you should write “see footnote 10” or something similar in the text or parentheses.

Footnotes can appear at the bottom of the relevant page or at the end of the paper on a separate page designated for footnotes:

APA-footnotes-format

Footnotes at the end of the essays

This is where you place the footnotes on a designated page at the end of your paper. When doing so, the APA footnotes page should appear after the reference page. Other mandatory formatting requirements are:

  • The title of the footnotes page should be centered and bold .
  • The first line of each footnote should be indented .
  • A single space should appear between the superscript number and the footnote .
  • Footnotes at the end of the text should be double-spaced .
  • The footnotes should be reported in the order of their figures in the text .

Footnotes at the end of the page

Your word processor can help you automatically insert footnotes at the page’s bottom. This technique helps you ensure that all the superscript numbers correspond to the right footnote. Additionally, it helps you separate the footnotes from the primary text.

Footnotes at the end of essays should ALWAYS be single-spaced. Also, there should be a single space between the superscript number of the APA footnote.

APA footnotes: Copyright footnotes

If you use copyright resources that go beyond the fair use guidelines in your project, you may require copyright footnotes. The role of copyright footnotes is to acknowledge that you have permission to include the copyrighted material in your research.

For instance, you can reproduce an image or infographic with the received permission and include the copyright note in the relevant caption instead of the footnote.

9 From Man and his Vision: A Comprehensive Analysis (p.62), by Jamal H. Anu and John K. Manuel, 2005, Routledge. Copyright 2005 by Marc & Joburg. Reprinted with permission.

APA footnotes: Content footnotes

Content footnotes in APA help you provide additional data about your content to readers.

For instance, you can use them to clarify a point or direct readers to the sources containing more information on a specific topic or detail in your text.

2 See Miranda (2015), Chapter 16, for a detailed report on this study.

Are footnotes required in APA?

APA footnotes are not mandatory for certain papers in APA. However, adding them to your paper would not hurt.

How can you use APA footnotes?

You can use footnotes in APA to provide additional information or copyright attribution .

When should APA footnotes appear?

You can write APA footnotes at the bottom of relevant pages in your paper. However, you can also group them and place them on a separate page at the end of your research paper .

What are footnotes?

Footnotes are a way for authors to provide additional content to their papers without diverting readers from the text.

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Footnotes provide additional information for a term, phrase, or sentence mentioned in the text. The information added in the footnote should not be a continuation of the text being discussed in the text. Such information should be included in the text and not as a footnote. Include only information that provides supplementary details as a footnote.

The advantage of using a footnote is that it does not hinder the reader from the main topic discussed in the text.

You can follow either footnote style or endnote style.

In addition to providing additional information, footnotes also act as citations in some styles. For example, Chicago, Turabian, and Oscola citation styles follow footnote citation instead of the author–date citation.

Footnotes are used in two ways:

  • To provide additional information
  • To act as citations of references

What is the difference between a footnote and an endnote?

A footnote appears at the end of each page on which it is cited. An endnote, on the other hand, appears at the end of the paper under the heading “Notes.” In most citation styles, footnotes are used to provide additional information. Any supplementary information about the topic being discussed in the text can be added in the footnote. The following sections will explain how to add callouts in the text and add footnotes in the footer. A footnote will act as a short citation, whereas an endnote may act as a bibliography and provide full details of the source. You can use both footnotes and endnotes in your paper, but use different numbering styles to distinguish them.

Do footnotes need a bibliography?

If footnotes provide a short citation of the source (e.g., Chicago style), they need the bibliography to be added to allow the reader to see the full information of the source.

Do MLA, APA, and Chicago use footnotes?

All three citation styles use footnotes. While MLA and APA use footnotes to provide additional information, Chicago uses footnotes in one of its systems of citing the sources (notes–bibliography system).

Using and formatting footnotes

In most citation styles, footnotes are used to provide additional information. Any supplementary information about the topic being discussed in the text can be added in the footnote. The following sections will explain how to add callouts in the text and adding footnotes in the footer.

Citing footnotes in the text

Footnotes are cited as superscript numerals in the text. You can follow either Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) or lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc.) as citations. However, use them consistently in your paper. One footnote should have only one idea. Footnotes should not be overused, as having more footnotes will affect the layout of the paper. If you want to add more information, it is advisable to add the content in the text or create an appendix.

When you want to insert a footnote citation, you need to follow some basic rules of punctuation:

1. Number footnote citations consecutively according to their order of presentation in the text.

2. Add the callout of the footnote after the punctuation mark. See the below examples for your understanding:

This is a text footnote citation. 1

In this work, 2 the author tries to clarify the idea.

3. Place the footnote citation before the dash:

A footnote citation—against the citations 3 —provides an extension to the text.

4. The footnote callout should immediately follow the text or any punctuation mark without any space.

5. If you want to cite the same footnote again in the text, simply add “see Footnote #.” “#” denotes the footnote number. Note that the details of the footnote need not be added again.

Adding footnotes in the footer

Footnote text is included on the same page on which the callout appears. It is included at the end of the page as a footer. The footnote number is given in superscript. The footnote text follows the number. Do not leave any space between the number and the text. Avoid using many footnotes, as it will affect the layout and look of the page. If the content added as a footnote is part of the main text, include it in the text. As adding many footnotes is not recommended, avoid repeating the same footnotes with a new number. If you want the reader to refer to the already provided footnote, please mention the footnote number in the text.

This is an example of a sentence in the text. Do not use long sentences to avoid confusing the reader. State your ideas in simple, clear sentences. 1 It is important that you avoid using too many footnotes, as using many footnotes will affect the layout of your paper.

The content you add in footnotes should only provide additional information of the word, phrase, or clause discussed in the paper and should not have points related to the main topic discussed in the text. 2

_________________________________

1 This is the first footnote.

2 Note that the footnote callout is given after the period.

Key takeaways

  • Footnotes can provide additional information or act as citations.
  • Use superscript Arabic numerals or lowercase Roman numerals as callouts.
  • Follow consecutive numbering for callouts.
  • Avoid adding many footnotes to your work.

Popular Citation Examples

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  • Citing conference proceedings
  • Citing a court case
  • Citing a database
  • Citing a dictionary entry
  • Citing a dissertation
  • Citing an eBook
  • Citing an edited book
  • Citing an email
  • Citing an encyclopedia article
  • Citing a government publication
  • Citing an image
  • Citing an interview
  • Citing a journal article
  • Citing legislation
  • Citing a magazine
  • Citing a meme
  • Citing a mobile app
  • Citing a movie
  • Citing a newspaper
  • Citing a pamphlet
  • Citing a patent
  • Citing a play
  • Citing a podcast
  • Citing a poem
  • Citing a presentation
  • Citing a press release
  • Citing a pseudonym
  • Citing a report
  • Citing Shakespeare
  • Citing social media
  • Citing a song
  • Citing software
  • Citing a speech
  • Citing translated book
  • Citing a TV Show
  • Citing a weather report
  • Citing a website
  • Citing Wikipedia article
  • Citing a YouTube video

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How to Use Footnotes in APA Format

Footnotes in APA format are used to:

  • give extra interesting information but which is not important to the argument of the main text.
  • show that more information is available somewhere else (e.g. supplementary material online).
  • acknowledge copyright (e.g. data that is reproduced from another source).

APA footnotes are NOT used for citations or referencing.

  • end of the page (which is most common)
  • on a separate page labelled FOOTNOTES after the references.

Footnotes may be found:

  • at the end of the page
  • on a separate page

Multiple references to a single footnote are possible.

Footnotes in APA Format at the End of the Page

Use the Microsoft Word footnote function to insert footnotes in APA format. No further formatting is required.

The footnote number in the text is an Arabic superscript number starting from 1 (see Figure 1).

The footnote number is inserted straight after the word (i.e. before the space) unless there is a punctuation mark after the word, like this. 1

Insert the footnote at the bottom of the page as follows (see Figure 1):

  • Insert the cursor after the word or the punctuation mark
  • Select the References tab
  • Select Insert footnote ( a superscript number will appear after the word or punctuation mark)
  • Click in the footnote that has appeared at the bottom of the page and type your note.

How to insert an APA footnote

Microsoft Word will number the footnotes consecutively.

Microsoft Word will maintain the footnotes, that is, if you insert or delete a footnote. It will renumber all the other footnotes.

Footnotes in APA Format on a Separate Page

You can place all your footnotes in APA format on a separate page (or pages) after the Reference section, instead of at the bottom of each page.

You might do this if you have  a lot of footnotes.

The advantages are:

  • the reader is not distracted by extra information at the bottom of the page
  • the page looks cleaner without extra information at the bottom of the page
  • the reader can read all the footnote information in one go.

The disadvantage is the reader has to look at a different page to read a footnote.

Microsoft Word can create footnotes on a separate page (they really become endnotes but APA does not use that term).

There are two stages:

  • Move the footnotes to the end of each section
  • Move the footnotes in each section to the Footnotes page.
  • Write your footnotes at the bottom of each page (see above)
  • Create a Footnotes page after the References page. There should be a section break before and after the Footnotes page. Format the Footnotes page (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 40-41) as follows:
  • The heading "Footnotes" is bold and centered at the top of the page
  • The footnotes are double-spaced indented paragraphs
  • There is a space between the footnote number and the text
  • Select the bottom right diagonal arrow
  • Select Endnotes, then select End of section (see Figure 2)

Prepare to convert footnotes to endnotes at the end of each section

  • Select Convert
  • Select Convert all footnotes to endnotes - the footnotes will move to the end of each section (see Figure 3)

Convert footnotes to endnotes at the end of each section

  • Select the Layout tab in the ribbon
  • Select the bottom right diagonal arrow in the Page Setup group
  • Place your cursor in the first section that contains footnotes
  • Select Suppress endnotes (this will move the endnotes from the current section to the next section)
  • Select OK (see Figure 4)

Move endnotes from one section to the next

  • Repeat for each section until the endnotes are on the Footnotes page The endnotes are the original footnotes that were at the end of each page.

Multiple References to an APA Footnote

Refer to a footnote already defined with an in-text reference such as "see Note 8" (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 40).

Do not define the footnote again, that is, creating a duplicate footnote.

If you insert a footnote in between others (e.g. add a footnote between footnotes 8 and 9),  or delete a footnote, Microsoft Word will automatically renumber all the footnotes.

However, it will NOT renumber your in-text reference.

For example, if you delete footnote 8, you will still have "see Note 8" in your text.

You must renumber or delete any in-text references.

However, you can automate this process as follows:

  • Select the footnote superscript number the first time it occurs, that is, where the footnote was created
  • Create a bookmark for that superscript number
  • Select the Insert tab
  • Select Bookmark
  • Enter bookmark name
  • Select Add.
  • Enter the following in-text for subsequent references to that footnote, for example, See Footnote {NoteRef bookmark name}
  • Enter "See Footnote Ctrl+F9", that is, press Ctrl+F9 (this will insert brackets)
  • Position cursor inside the brackets
  • Enter NoteRef and bookmark name
  • Select brackets and content
  • Press F9 and the footnote number will appear.

Note: The footnote number will not be updated automatically. To update this field and all others:

  • Press Ctrl+A to select the whole document
  • Press F9 to update all fields including the footnote reference.

Recommendation – Repeat this process when you have finished your document to make sure all fields are updated.

Footnotes are not used for citations in the APA style.

They are used to provide additional information but should be brief, and not crucial to the main text.

Footnotes in APA format are easily inserted and maintained by Microsoft Word.

See the APA guide  (opens new window) for further information.

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Note : The version of Microsoft Word used is the latest Word for Microsoft 365. The functions should also work in the 2021, 2019, 2016 and 2013 versions .

© Copyright www.apaword.com    Privacy Policy     About Me Microsoft Word screenshots used with permission from Microsoft. APA style has been developed and maintained by the American Psychological Association. 

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English Composition 3: Composition, Rhetoric, and Language (Fall 2023, Kipen)

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Citation Style Guides - Online

Citation style guides - print, annotated bibliographies, writing a paper get started here..

Sometimes you need to narrow or broaden your topic.

  • What is a Research Paper? This link leads you to the OWL at Purdue , an excellent website with information on all aspects of writing a paper. You do NOT need to click on the GREEN Start button to use the website.
  • How to Read a Call Number Do you wonder how to read a call number to find a book on the shelf? Check this page out for tips on how to do it.
  • How to Read a Citation Can't tell the difference between a citation to a book or an article ? Check this page out for tips on how citations work.

footnote citation style apa

Avoiding Plagiarism

See the Citing Sources Research Guide Section on Avoiding Plagiarism for more information.

  • UCLA Academic Integrity (UCLA Dean of Students)

UCLA has a campuswide license to Turnitin.com. Some professors ask their students to turn their papers in electronically and the text is submitted to Turnitin.com where it is compared with a vast database of other student papers, online articles, general Web pages, and other sources. Turnitin.com then produces a report for the instructor indicating whether the paper was plagiarized and if so, how much. To access this resource, log in to MyUCLA and click on the Turnitin.com link in the left-hand column under "MyUCLA Features." There will only be a link if your professor is using Turnitin.com.

  • Quick Guide to Turnitin.com

When citing sources be sure to use the proper citation style for the course. Below are links to ONLINE summarized citation rules from some of the more popular style guides:

  • APA Style and Grammar Guidelines from American Psychological Association
  • APA (American Psychological Association) Via OWL at Purdue Use the examples on this page. You DO NOT need to click the green START button to use the website.
  • AAA (American Anthropological Association)
  • MLA Style: Using MLA Format A quick guide to MLA formats based on the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook.
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) Via OWL at Purdue Use the examples on this page. You DO NOT need to click the green START button and use the website.
  • Chicago Manual of Style-Quick Guide Via University of Chicago Press.
  • Chicago Manual of Style via OWL at Purdue. Use the examples on this page. You DO NOT need to click the green START button to use the website.
  • Turabian Quick Guide Based on the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • Guide to Citing Maps and Atlases
  • Citing Film, Video and Online Media (MLA Style) Guide from UCB Media Center. Consult latest edition of the MLA handbook for any changes to formatting.

For a general introduction to academic citation and intellectual property, see Citing Sources .

For more detail, consult the complete printed style manuals, available in many campus libraries:

footnote citation style apa

Preparing an annotated bibliography is often the first step in writing a research paper. Sometimes it is a stand-alone assignment. Annotations usually include both description and some evaluative comment. See Purdue University's OWL (Online Writing Lab) page (linked below) for more help in preparing an annotated bibliography.

  • Annotated Bibliographies--Definition and Format This page from the OWL at Purdue provides basic information on annotated bibliography structure, with links to other parts of the OWL website.
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How to Reference a PowerPoint [A Complete Guide]

It is important to acknowledge sources of information in academic work, even when they are from a PowerPoint provided by a professor or found online. Failure to do so can be considered plagiarism and harm academic integrity. Fortunately, citing a PowerPoint is straightforward as long as one understands the basic formatting requirements. This guide provides information on how to correctly reference a PowerPoint presentation in APA, MLA, or Chicago style.

Understanding Different Citation Styles

Proper citation is an important part of academic writing. When you use information from a source, you need to credit the original author or publisher by citing it.

img’s link: https://zebrabi.com/guide/how-to-add-references-in-powerpoint/

There are a few major citation styles used in academia:

Preservation of Academic Integrity: Adhering to meticulous citation practices is imperative for upholding academic integrity, and mitigating the risks of plagiarism and its consequential penalties.

Reinforcement of Arguments: Rigorous citation strengthens arguments and shows academic proficiency. It signifies thorough research and the use of scholarly sources.

Facilitation of Fact-Checking: Including citations empowers readers to meticulously validate information, scrutinize sources, and delve into the subject matter more deeply.

Refinement of Skills: Conscientious adherence to citation standards catalyzes refining research and writing skills, fostering heightened attention to detail.

Elevation of Credibility: Properly citing the contributions of others aligns with ethical norms and boosts credibility in scholarly discourse.

There are different citation styles that you can use depending on your discipline, purpose, and preference. Some of the most commonly used citation styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago:

APA stands for American Psychological Association and is used for social sciences and psychology.

MLA stands for Modern Language Association and is used for humanities and liberal arts.

Chicago offers two styles: notes-bibliography and author-date. Notes-bibliography is used for history and humanities and uses footnotes or endnotes for in-text citations and a bibliography for references. Author-date is similar to APA and is used for natural and physical sciences.

The specific format and rules for citing sources vary between these styles. Determining what style your discipline requires and consistently following that formatting is important.

Citing Sources in PowerPoint

You'll need certain identifying information from the source to properly cite a PowerPoint presentation. This includes:

Name of the author(s)

Date the PowerPoint was published

Place of publication

Title of the presentation

URL (if accessed online)

When including citations in a PowerPoint presentation, you can cite sources in these ways:

In-text citations: These appear on the slide and correlate with a full reference at the end of the presentation.

Footer citations: The source information appears at the bottom of the slide.

End references: Full references on a reference slide at the end of the PowerPoint.

In an academic paper, APA and MLA require in-text citations. Chicago uses footnotes or endnotes. Any of these formats are acceptable for a PowerPoint as long as the source is clearly cited.

How to Reference PowerPoint in Different Citation Styles

How to reference powerpoint in apa.

APA citations for a PowerPoint presentation list the author's name and presentation date in parentheses after the title:

In-text citation on slide: (Author Surname, Year)

Full reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of presentation [Format]. Retrieved from URL

In-text citation on the slide: (Smith, 2022)

Full reference at the end: Smith, J. (2022, March). How to succeed in business [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: https://www.lecturenotes.com/business/how-to-succeed

How to Reference PowerPoint in MLA

MLA citations for PowerPoint presentations include the author's name and presentation date after the title:

In-text citation on slide: (Author Surname Year)

Full reference: Author Surname, First Name. “Title of Presentation.” Date Created, Website, URL. Date accessed.

In-text citation on the slide: (Smith 2022)

Full reference: Smith, James. “How to Succeed in Business.” March 2022, www.lecturenotes.com/business/how-to-succeed. Accessed 23 Mar. 2022.

How to Reference PowerPoint in Chicago

For Chicago style, the citation structure listed in PowerPoint will be written like this:

Footnote on slide: Number. First Name Surname, "Title" (Format, date), slide number, URL.

James Smith, "How to Succeed in Business" (PowerPoint presentation, March 15, 2022), slide 5, https://url.com.

Full reference: Surname, First Name. “Title.” Format, Date. URL.

Smith, James. “How to Succeed in Business.” PowerPoint presentation, March 15, 2022. https://url.com.

As you can see, the major citation styles all include the author, date, title, and source URL in different formats. Getting this core information allows you to cite the PowerPoint accurately.

How to Cite an Online Presentation

In recent years, online tools like Microsoft Sway, Canva, Visme, Prezi, and more have made it easy for anyone to create sleek, graphical presentations. These tools are great for professional use, and many instructors present through them.

Citing an online presentation in such tools is very similar to a traditional PowerPoint, but the source information might be found in different places:

When incorporating a PowerPoint or Google Slides presentation from an in-person lecture into your Works Cited page, adhere to the following citation format:

Instructor’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Presentation.” Title of Course. Day Month Year of Lecture, Location. Lecture. Slide number if a specific slide was referenced.

Example: Sloan, Courtney. "Crafting an Argument." English 101. 4 Apr. 2020, Frederick Community College. Lecture.

If the PowerPoint or Google Slides were shared via a course management system like Blackboard, use the following citation style:

Last Name, First Name of PowerPoint creator. "Title of Presentation." Course Management System, name of the person who uploaded it, day month year of upload, simplified URL.

Example : Sloan, Courtney. “Crafting an Argument.” Blackboard, uploaded by Courtney Sloan, 21 Oct. 2019, frederick.blackboard.com/.

For in-text citations, utilize the last name and slide number:

Example: Planning is essential to a well-written argument (Sloan Slide 10).

If your paper refers to only one slide, specify the slide number at the end of the Works Cited citation. In such cases, omit the slide number from the in-text citation.

Example : Planning is essential to a well-written argument (Sloan).

Use company name or website as author when an individual author is not listed on online presentation tools. Include details like URL, publisher, and date to distinguish it from others online.

Free Alternatives for Microsoft PowerPoint – WPS Presentation

Tired of dealing with expensive Microsoft Office licenses for school and work? Consider using WPS Office as a free alternative to MS Office.

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WPS Presentation makes it easy to create great-looking presentations. It has handy features for academics and students, including research tools, note-taking, and text-to-speech.

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This software's Reference tab offers robust citation management capabilities that allow users to easily insert and customize footnotes and endnotes, ensuring their documents meet academic and professional standards.

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WPS Office's Reference tab helps users add citations to their documents for better credibility and readability. It's ideal for researchers, students, and professionals, with features like customizable footnotes and endnotes.

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How do you cite a professor's lecture in a paper?

To cite a professor's lecture, provide the professor's name, presentation title in quotation marks, venue, city, date performed, and medium. Here's an example:

In-text: (Jones, 2022)

References: Jones, Sam. "The Importance of Marketing." Marketing 300 Lecture, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, January 10, 2022. Lecture.

Should I cite sources in a PowerPoint presentation?

Yes, absolutely cite your sources when creating an academic or professional PowerPoint presentation. Failing to cite material that you referenced properly constitutes plagiarism, even if it's in a PowerPoint. Use in-text, footnote, or endnote citations on PowerPoint slides, just as you would in an essay or paper.

Citing sources properly is a key component of any academic paper or project. PowerPoint presentations require citations just like a written paper does. You can easily cite a PowerPoint presentation by following the correct formatting for APA, MLA, or Chicago style. Consider using a free program like WPS Presentation to simplify creating and formatting slide citations. Proper citations help demonstrate your academic integrity and ability to utilize quality sources.

  • 1. How to Make A Pie Chart in PowerPoint [A Complete Guide]
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  • 4. How to Use Relative Reference in Excel (Step-by-Step)
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Cara Penulisan Footnote dan Contohnya, Lengkap Format, Gaya, dan Aturan

Laudia Tysara

Diperbarui 30 Apr 2021, 13:15 WIB Diterbitkan 30 Apr 2021, 13:15 WIB

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Liputan6.com, Jakarta Cara penulisan footnote bisa dilakukan dengan membuat catatan lengkap dan pendek bila merujuk gaya Chicago. Secara umum, cara penulisan footnote adalah memuat nama belakang penulis, judul, dan nomor halaman. Penulisan ini berlaku untuk sumber jurnal, buku, internet, sampai skripsi.

Cara Menulis Footnote yang Benar, Lengkap dengan Format dan Contohnya

3 cara membuat catatan kaki simpel, ketahui unsur dan cara penulisannya yang benar, cara membuat footnote di word secara otomatis, lebih praktis.

Mengetahui dan memahami cara penulisan footnote yang benar ini penting dalam pembuatan karya ilmiah. Nama lain footnote adalah catatan kaki, letaknya di bagian bawah halaman. Fungsi utama cara penulisan footnote, yakni mengetahui sumber rujukan secara langsung pada suatu halaman tulisan ilmiah.

Cara penulisan footnote bisa dilakukan secara otomatis di Microsoft Word. Buka tab Reference, kemudian pilih Insert Footnote. Cara penulisan footnote ini akan langsung memunculkan angka 1 untuk dilanjutkan diisi informasi sumber rujukan. Selain itu, cara penulisan footnote bisa dengan pintasan Ctrl + Alt + F pada keyboard.

Berikut Liputan6.com ulas cara penulisan footnote dan contohnya dari berbagai sumber, Jumat (30/4/2021).

* Follow Official WhatsApp Channel Liputan6.com untuk mendapatkan berita-berita terkini dengan mengklik tautan ini

Cara Penulisan Footnote yang Benar

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Ada dua jenis cara penulisan footnote dalam gaya Chicago: catatan lengkap dan catatan pendek. Catatan lengkap berisi detail publikasi lengkap dari sumbernya. Mereka hanya digunakan dalam teks tanpa bibliografi . Jika tidak menyertakan bibliografi, kutipan pertama untuk setiap sumber harus berupa catatan lengkap.

Catatan pendek atau cara penulisan footnote hanya berisi nama belakang penulis, judul (dipersingkat jika lebih dari empat kata), dan nomor halaman (jika relevan). Mereka digunakan untuk semua kutipan berikutnya dari sumber yang sama. Jika kamu menyertakan bibliografi, catatan pendek digunakan untuk setiap kutipan.

Cara penulisan footnote berisi nomor kutipan diikuti dengan titik dan kemudian kutipan itu sendiri. Kutipan selalu mencantumkan nama penulis dan judul teks, dan selalu diakhiri dengan titik. Catatan lengkap juga mencakup semua informasi publikasi yang relevan (yang bervariasi menurut jenis sumber).

Jika cara penulisan footnote mengutip sumber atau merujuk pada bagian tertentu, sertakan nomor halaman atau rentang. Namun, jika sumber cara penulisan footnote tidak memiliki nomor halaman, atau jika merujuk ke teks secara keseluruhan, kamu dapat menghilangkan nomor halaman.

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Cara Penulisan Footnote dan Contohnya

karier menulis 2

Cara Penulisan Footnote dari Jurnal

1. Nama depan penulis Nama belakang, “Judul Artikel,” Volume Nama Jurnal , Nomor terbitan (Tahun): nomor halaman, DOI atau URL.

2. Nama belakang penulis, “Judul Artikel yang Dipersingkat,” nomor halaman.

Hannes Datta, “The Challenge of Retaining Customers Acquired with Free Trials,” Journal of Marketing Research 52, no. 2 (2015): 220, www.jstor.org/stable/43832354.

Datta, “Challenge of Retaining Customers,” 220.

Mc. Preganent, “Representative of Natural Habits with Prulal Educaton”. Educational Evaluation and Alanytics. Vol. 4 No. 3, Summer 2003, hal. 120.

Gemar Berkarya Hatta, “Rekam Kesehatan dan Medis (Medical Records) dalam Kedudukannya sebagai Penunjang Kesehatan Nasional”, dalam Berita Arsip Nasional, No. 28, Juni 1988 (Surabaya: ANRI, 1988), hal. 7.

Cara Penulisan Footnote dari Internet

1. Nama depan penulis nama belakang, "Judul Halaman," Judul Situs Web, tanggal publikasi, URL.

2. Nama belakang penulis, "Judul Halaman yang Dipersingkat."

Courtney Gahan, “How to Paraphrase Sources,” Scribbr, April 18, 2018, https://​www.scribbr.com/​citing-sources/​how-to-paraphrase/.

Gahan, “How to Paraphrase Sources.”

Fungsi dan Ciri-ciri Konjungsi Temporal

Cara Penulisan Footnote dari Buku

1. Nama depan penulis Nama belakang, Judul Buku, edisi. (Tempat publikasi: Penerbit, tahun), nomor halaman, URL.

2. Nama belakang penulis, Judul Buku yang Dipersingkat, nomor halaman.

Stephen Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People , edisi ke-3. (New York: Free Press, 1989), 75–89.

Covey, 7 Habits , 75–7.

Cara Penulisan Footnote dari Bab Buku

1. Nama depan penulis nama belakang, “Judul Bab,” dalam Judul Buku , ed. Nama depan editor Nama belakang (Tempat penerbitan: Penerbit, tahun), nomor halaman.

2. Nama belakang penulis, “Judul Bab yang Dipersingkat,” nomor halaman.

Bob Stewart, “Wag of the Tail: Reflecting on Pet Ownership,” dalam Enriching Our Lives with Animals , ed. John Jaimeson (Toronto: Petlove Press, 2007), 87.

Stewart, “Wag of the Tail,” 88.

Ilustrasi menulis

Cara Penulisan Footnote dari Skripsi

Muryid Rahman, Skripsi: “Perkembangan Struktur Ekonomi Menengah Kebawah Setelah Mempelajari Kecakapan Teknologi Informasi” (Yogyakarta: UGM, 2005), Hal. 85.

Adnan Syarief, Skripsi: “Sistem Pendaftaran Praktikum Berbasi Laravel” (Yogyakarta: UMY, 2017), Hal 30.

Cara Penulisan Footnote dari Majalah

Muhammad Adnan, “Peran Serta Orang Tua, Guru dan Lingkungan Dalam Mendidik Moral Anak Studi Kasus Babakan, Yogyakarta” (Paper presented at Seminar Lokakarya Pendidikan MIPA se-Indonesia, Mataram, 2003), Hal. 15.

Mochtar Naim,’’Mengapa Orang Minang Merantau?’’ Tempo, 31 Januari 1975, hlm. 36.

Cara Penulisan Footnote dari Jumlah Pengarang

1. Contoh cara penulisan footnote 1 pengarang

¹Chairil Anwar, Deru Campur Debu, (Jakarta: PT GRAMEDIA PUSTAKA UTAMA, 1992), hlm9.

²Sartono Suryadiningrat, Pendekatan Ilmu-ilmu Agama Dalam Muamalah Masyarakat (Jakarta: Asy-Syariah, 2003), hal. 14.

2. Contoh cara penulisan footnote 2 hingga 3 pengarang

¹Joko Budiman dan Armand Setiadi, Struktur Atom (Jakarta: Bina Sanjaya, 1996), hal. 50-68.

²Patrick Wesell dan Arnold Jonathan, Anatomy of Atom (New Zealand: Light Pen, 1989), hal. 36-40.

3. Contoh cara penulisan footnote lebih dari 3 pengarang

¹Sri Utami dkk, Bahasa Inggris Level 5 (Yogyakarta: PT. Gramedia, 2003), hal. 5.

²Mahmud Efendi, dkk. Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia, (Solo: Citra Aji Pratama, 2008), hal, 47.

Format Cara Penulisan Footnote

Ilustrasi laptop | Vlada Karpovich dari Pexels

Cara penulisan footnote pada sebuah karya tulis tak boleh asal-asalan. Ada beberapa aturan yang harus dipenuhi. Pada sebuah karya tulis ilmiah terdapat sistematika tersendiri mengenai cara penulisan footnote atau catatan kaki.

Berikut format cara penulisan footnote yang benar:

1. Empat belas karakter dari margin kiri dan berjarak empat spasi dari teks.

2. Catatan kaki diketik berspasi satu.

3. Diberi nomor.

4. Nomor catatan kaki diketik dengan jarak enam karakter dari margin kiri.

5. Jika catatan kakinya lebih dari satu baris maka baris kedua dan selanjutnya dimulai seperti margin teks biasa (tepat pada margin kiri).

6. Jika catatan kakinya lebih dari satu maka jarak antara satu catatan dengan catatan yang lainnya adalah sama dengan jarak spasi teks.

7. Jarak baris terakhir catatan kaki tetap 3 cm dari pinggir kertas bagian bawah.

8. Keterangan yang panjang tidak boleh dilakukan ke halaman berikutnya. Lebih baik potong tulisan asli daripada memotong catatan kaki.

9. Jika keterangan yang sama menjadi berurutan (misalnya keterangan nomor 2 sama dengan nomor 3, cukup tuliskan kata ibid daripada mengulang-ulang keterangan catatan kaki.

10. Jika ada keterangan yang sama tetapi tidak berurutan, berikan keterangan op.cit., lih [x] [x] merupakan nomor keterangan sebelumnya.

11. Jika keterangan seperti opcit tetapi isinya keterangan tentang artikel, gunakan loc.cit.

12. Untuk keterangan mengenai referensi artikel atau buku tertentu, penulisannya mirip daftar pustaka, tetapi nama pengarang tidak dibalik.

Keterangan singkatan dari cara penulisan footnote:

1. Ibid. Singkatan dari Ibidum, yang memiliki arti “sama dengan di atas”. Biasanya ini digunakan untuk catatan kaki yang sumbernya sama dengan catatan kaki yang berada tepat di atasnya. Footnote ini ditulis dengan huruf besar, diberi garis bawah, lalu diberi titik (.) serta koma (,) dan juga nomor halaman.

2. Op.cit. Merupakan singkatan dari opere citato, yang artinya “dalam karya yang telah dikutip”. Biasanya footnote ini digunakan untuk sumber yang pernah dikutip namun sudah disisipi footnote lain dari sumber lainnya. Cara penulisannya, yaitu dimulai dengan nama pengarang, op.cit nomor halaman.

3. Loc.cit. Yaitu singkatan dari loco citato, artinya “tempat yang telah dikutip”. Hampir sama dengan footnote di atas tetapi dari halaman yang sama. Cara menulisnya, dimulai dari nama pengarang loc.cit (tanpa nomor halaman).

Cara Penulisan Footnote di Microsoft Word

Ilustrasi laptop | Andrea Piacquadio dari Pexels

Cara penulisan footnote di Word yang pertama mudah saja, buka dokumen yang ingin kamu beri footnote di Word. Setelah itu, tempatkan kursor di tempat yang kamu inginkan dimana footnote akan muncul.

Setelah itu buka tab Reference. Tab ini terletak di bagian atas jendela, biasanya antara Page Layout and Mailings. Tab ini memungkinkan kamu menyisipkan berbagai alat referensi, seperti daftar isi, catatan kaki dan catatan akhir, kutipan, keterangan, dan lainnya.

Di sini pilih opsi Insert Footnote. Cara penulisan footnote ini secara otomatis membuat footnote sudah terbentuk pada dokumen dengan angka 1 kecil yang muncul pada tempat kamu meletakkan kursor tadi.

Isi footnote dengan informasi yang ingin kamu sampaikan. Kamu juga bisa menggunakan pintasan dengan menekan Ctrl + Alt + F pada keyboardmu untuk membuat sebuah footnote.

Cara penulisan footnote dengan mengubah penomoran yaitu, klik tombol Menu di sudut kanan bawah bagian Footnotes. Setelah itu akan terbuka jendela Footnote and Endnote. Di bagian Format, gunakan menu Penomoran untuk memilih kapan kamu ingin nomor footnote di reset kembali.

Kamu dapat memasukkan pemisah bagian ke dalam dokumen dengan cara penulisan footnote klik tab Layout Halaman, mengklik tombol Breaks di bagian Page Setup, dan kemudian memilih jenis pemisah yang ingin kamu masukkan. Selain mengubah penomoran footnote, pemisah juga bagus untuk mengubah tata letak ke bagian tertentu dari dokumen.

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Cara Penulisan Footnote

Catatan kaki, karya ilmiah.

Fadila Adelin

Ganjar Pranowo

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Momen Akrab Jokowi Makan Siang Bareng Anies, Ganjar, dan Prabowo di Istana

Relawan Prabowo Tantang Ganjar Pranowo Ungkap Kasus Penculikan

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Ganjar Pranowo pamer pose bareng Menteri PUPR RI, Basuki Hadimuljono atau yang akrab didapa Pak Bas. Unggahan ini bikin geger netizen Tanah Air. (Foto: Dok. Instagram @ganjar_pranowo)

Ganjar Pranowo Pamer Foto Bareng Basuki Hadimuljono, Netizen Minta Pak Bas Jadi Menteri PUPR Lagi

Presiden Joko Widodo (Jokowi) memberikan pidato dalam sidang kabinet paripurna di Istana Negara, Jakarta, Senin, 3 Juli 2023. (Foto: Instagram @jokowi)

Alasan Jokowi Hanya Undang Capres Tanpa Cawapres ke Istana

Jokowi melakukan blusukan ke Pasar Pekalongan bersama Prabowo Subianto dan Ganjar Pranowo. (Foto: Rusman - Biro Pers Sekretariat Presiden)

Jokowi Undang 3 Capres, Anies Baswedan, Ganjar Pranowo dan Prabowo Subianto di Istana Siang Ini

Ganjar Pranowo Buka Voting Baju Selama Masa Kampanye, dari Kemeja Polos hingga Garis-Garis (Tangkapan Layar Instagram/ganjar_pranowo)

Ganjar Pranowo Singgung Baju Kampanye, Tinggalkan Kemeja Hitam Putih Rancangan Jokowi?

Anies baswedan.

Bakal pasangan calon Anies Baswedan-Muhaimin Iskandar (Cak Imin) menyapa awak media sesaat sebelum menjalani tes kesehatan di RSPAD Gatot Soebroto, Senen, Jakarta Pusat, Sabtu (21/10/2023). (Liputan6.com/Angga Yuniar)

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Pasangan Bacapres Bacawapres Anies Baswedan - Muhaimin Iskandar menaiki mobil land rover dengan atap terbuka menuju Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU) di Jakarta, Kamis (19/10/2023). (Liputan6.com/Angga Yuniar)

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Cak Imin Optimis AMIN Menang di Jakarta: Insya Allah Sudah Aman Suaranya

Piala dunia u-17.

Chow Yun Damanik merupakan pemain berposisi gelandang. Dia bisa bermain di posisi gelandang jangkar, gelandang bertahan, atau gelandang serang. Dia mampu tampil cerdas dalam mengatur atau memulai alur serangan timnya. (Dok. PSSI)

Timnas Indonesia U-17 Dipastikan Tanpa Pemain Diaspora Chow Yun Damanik di Piala Dunia U-17 2023

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footnote citation style apa

IMAGES

  1. Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples

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  2. How to make a footnote in apa

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  4. Footnotes in APA format

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  5. Apa footnote format

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  6. 😀 Apa footnotes example paper. 3 Ways to Cite a White Paper. 2019-01-20

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VIDEO

  1. การสร้างเชิงอรรถ (Footnote)

  2. Mastering the Harvard Citation Style: Simplified!

  3. Building a Reference List in APA

  4. How to do an In-text citation single author @oceanofknowledgewithvictor

  5. How do you cite footnotes in APA?

  6. an example of IN-TEXT CITATION (according to APA manual style)

COMMENTS

  1. APA Footnotes

    Formatting footnotes in APA Footnotes use superscript numbers and should appear in consecutive order. Footnote numbers typically appear at the end of a sentence or clause, after the period or other punctuation. Example: Footnote in APA The findings of the study are consistent with other research. 1 However, there are exceptions:

  2. Footnotes & Appendices

    APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document.

  3. How to do APA footnotes

    Search Create manual citation Footnotes are a way for the author to provide additional content to their papers without distracting the reader from the text. The information in footnotes is different from the information provided in APA annotated bibliographies.

  4. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc. Reference List Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats Cite your source automatically in APA Cite

  5. Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples

    With APA 7 style, you should use footnotes only when you absolutely must. Ask your instructor for clarification. The purpose of footnotes is to add to or clarify a point. Footnotes are also used to add copyright information. Types of APA Footnotes There are two types of footnotes used in APA format: content footnotes and copyright footnotes.

  6. How do I format a footnote in APA Style?

    For footnotes at the end of the text in APA, place them on a separate page entitled "Footnotes," after the r eference page. Indent the first line of each footnote, and double-space them. For both approaches, place a space between the superscript number and the footnote text. Frequently asked questions: APA Style

  7. How to Cite a Footnote in APA

    Citing a footnote in APA most commonly follows the rules for citing a journal article. Select " Journal Article " in our free citation generator below. If a journal article doesn't quite reflect your source, use the drop-down to select another one. Citation Information Citation Style APA MLA Chicago Source Contributor First Name * Middle Initial

  8. Footnotes and appendices

    Copyright attribution Copyright attribution is required in a footnote when reproducing lengthy quotations or test/scale items in text Copyright attribution is used instead of in-text citation, but a reference list entry is required Format and examples: Concise guide to APA style, p. 209-210 For further information see the APA Manual p. 40.

  9. APA Footnotes

    Written by Jennifer Janechek Some Key Takeaways: Use footnotes to insert additional, related information into an APA-style document. Use Content Footnotes to concisely provide further information on a topic that is not directly related to the text.

  10. What Are Footnotes?

    Footnotes in APA Style. APA footnotes are used only for providing extra information, since APA in-text citations appear in parentheses instead. You can use them to provide supplemental information such as additional examples or clarifications; do this sparingly, as APA warns against including nonessential information.

  11. Footnotes and Endnotes

    Purdue OWL Research and Citation APA Style (6th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (6th Edition) Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes and Endnotes Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here.

  12. APA Footnotes

    APA footnotes — In a Nutshell APA footnotes are not mandatory. However, you can use them to provide additional information and copyright attribution. APA footnotes have different formatting rules, depending on where you place them.

  13. How to Write Footnotes: Rules and Examples

    Footnotes are small notations at the bottom of a page that provide additional information or cite the source of a passage in the page's text. A footnote is marked within the text by a superscript icon, usually an asterisk (*) or number (¹), which corresponds to the matching footnote at the bottom of the page.

  14. APA footnotes

    This is a citation for a footnote. 1; This is the second footnote, 2 which has the footnote callout after the comma. However, the footnote callout appears before the dash: A dash—if introduced 3 —comes after the callout. If you cite the same footnote, do not give a separate callout. Mention the footnote number in the text.

  15. APA Style

    The Mastering APA Style Student Workbook is an online and interactive workbook for teaching and learning seventh edition APA Style. Explore the workbook to learn more, register for a webinar, watch a demo video, try a sample workbook, and purchase your copy. Adopt the workbook for your course or workshop to use it to teach APA Style and ...

  16. How to Write Footnotes in MLA and APA

    You'll only use MLA 8 or APA 7 footnotes to make bibliographic, content, or copyright notes. Basically, you're just going to give your reader a little extra information that wouldn't fit in the text. Now that you know when you'll use them, dive into how to write an example footnote citation for your MLA or APA paper.

  17. Basic principles of citation

    APA Style uses the author-date citation system, in which a brief in-text citation directs readers to a full reference list entry.The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication.

  18. Footnotes for Source Citations in APA Style?

    APA Style uses text citations, not footnotes or endnotes, to direct the reader to a source in the reference list. This differs from other source documentation styles that use a combination of footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography for that purpose.

  19. Footnotes

    FAQs What is the difference between a footnote and an endnote? A footnote appears at the end of each page on which it is cited. An endnote, on the other hand, appears at the end of the paper under the heading "Notes." In most citation styles, footnotes are used to provide additional information.

  20. Footnote Referencing Styles

    Footnotes can be used in several different writing styles. Typically, Oxford, Chicago and Turabian will use footnotes for in-text citations. MLA and APA will also use footnotes but to provide content or copyright information, and not typically for attribution. The way that each of these referencing styles approaches and formats a footnote is a ...

  21. Footnotes in APA format

    Use the Microsoft Word footnote function to insert footnotes in APA format. No further formatting is required. The footnote number in the text is an Arabic superscript number starting from 1 (see Figure 1). The footnote number is inserted straight after the word (i.e. before the space) unless there is a punctuation mark after the word, like ...

  22. In-text citations

    In-text citations are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Chapter 8 and the Concise Guide Chapter 8. Date created: September 2019. APA Style provides guidelines to help writers determine the appropriate level of citation and how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism. We also provide specific guidance for ...

  23. Citing and Writing

    MLA Handbook, 9th ed., 2021 by The Modern Language Association of America Print book only at YRL and Powell Libraries, UCLA. The ninth edition works as both a textbook and a reference guide. Focusing on source evaluation, it features a wealth of visual examples and updated advice on punctuation and grammar, footnotes and endnotes, annotated bibliographies, and paper formatting including ...

  24. Apa And Mla Writing Formats Revised Printing (2022)

    Cite Right, Second Edition APA and MLA Writing Formats Concise Guide to APA Style The B2B Social Media Book How Learning Works A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition A Manual for Writers of Dissertations APA + MLA Guidelines in Tables Suggestions to Medical Authors and A.M.A. Style Book APA Style ...

  25. How to Reference a PowerPoint [A Complete Guide]

    Footer citations: The source information appears at the bottom of the slide. End references: Full references on a reference slide at the end of the PowerPoint. In an academic paper, APA and MLA require in-text citations. Chicago uses footnotes or endnotes. Any of these formats are acceptable for a PowerPoint as long as the source is clearly cited.

  26. Cara Penulisan Footnote dan Contohnya, Lengkap Format, Gaya, dan Aturan

    Secara umum, cara penulisan footnote adalah memuat nama belakang penulis, judul, dan nomor halaman. Penulisan ini berlaku untuk sumber jurnal, buku, internet, sampai skripsi. Mengetahui dan memahami cara penulisan footnote yang benar ini penting dalam pembuatan karya ilmiah. Nama lain footnote adalah catatan kaki, letaknya di bagian bawah halaman.