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What is Shadow IT? Examples, Risks, and Solutions
How do organizations mitigate risk without full oversight of their it solutions stack.
Shadow IT is defined as any unauthorized hardware, applications, or software implemented and managed by departments other than IT. With the rise of cloud-based SaaS solutions, shadow IT use has exploded — and could be up to ten times higher than known IT usage.
Shadow IT often seems innocuous. But it can leave the enterprise open to significant risk. From regulatory noncompliance to data exfiltration, organizations have good reason to want to prevent shadow IT in their digital workplaces.
Why Do People Use Shadow IT?
To tackle shadow IT, organizations must first understand what drives employees to use it. Most people want to do their jobs as efficiently and effectively as possible. That means using tools to help speed up repetitive processes, cut through red tape, and make work easier. If the organization doesn’t provide the right tools for the job, employees will go out and find them for themselves.
Any program can become part of a shadow IT network if it isn’t approved and regulated by the organization. Even — perhaps especially — tools that were built for enterprise use. And sometimes software decisions are nothing more than a matter of personal preference.
If the enterprise uses Microsoft Teams to communicate but the dev team unilaterally decides to switch to Slack, then Slack becomes part of that organization’s shadow IT. If Marketing uses Pages instead of O365, or Sales uses Dropbox instead of the company-approved file storage platform, they are introducing shadow IT.
More Examples of Shadow IT
Greg links his work email to his Outlook account on his personal phone to circumvent security protocols that prevent him from accessing his messages on the road. He shares this tip with his colleagues, who all follow suit.
Sally prefers managing her schedule through Asana instead of Basecamp. She invites members of her team to join her project and they migrate away from the company-sanctioned tools.
Jose needs to split a PDF to remove confidential information ahead of a big meeting. He uploads the file to a free website to modify the document. The site works so well that he downloads the freemium tool for future use and encourages the rest of his department to do the same.
Shadow IT software typically enters the workplace to fulfill an unmet need. When searching for where it exists in your enterprise, consider the common activities that employees perform and the potential roadblocks that make doing their jobs harder.
- Do they have tools to create and edit common file types?
- Can they communicate effectively with internal and external contacts?
- Is it easy to access, share, and collaborate on documents?
- How many security steps does it take to log into everyday programs?
Cloud-based applications form the bulk of shadow IT in most organizations. Each department within the enterprise has its own roles and requirements, and they all have dedicated software solutions available. From Marketing to Sales to HR, it’s important to speak to stakeholders across the entire organization to understand all the different IT solutions that are currently in use.
What is Shadow IT Risk?
If the purpose of shadow IT is to help employees to work better, what’s the problem? Especially if workers are using programs designed for enterprise use. It’s tempting to dismiss shadow IT as an inevitable part of doing business, and consider its risks overinflated. But without oversight from legal, compliance and IT officers, shadow IT can leave the organization vulnerable to data exfiltration, regulatory noncompliance and more.
Security Gaps and Data Exfiltration
Perhaps the biggest risk posed by shadow IT is to your company’s data. When employees use unauthorized programs to store and share proprietary information, the organization loses control over where that data ends up — or who ends up seeing it. That’s a big problem when 83% of IT professionals report their coworkers store company information on unsanctioned platforms (G2).
Shadow IT case study: The increase in employees working remotely since the onset of the pandemic has gone hand-in-hand with a rise in data leaks. Incidents are up 63% , with exposure from shadow assets increasing 40% in 2021 alone. More than half of all cyber attacks now stem from shadow IT.
Also of significant concern to modern enterprises, shadow IT is often used, intentionally or not, to circumvent legal and regulatory compliance measures. Staff members storing or sharing PII/PCI/PHI via private channels won't pass any audits.
Companies that must abide by rules and regulations such as HIPAA, FINRA, or CMMC 2.0 are particularly vulnerable, but any organization can find itself in hot water due to shadow IT. If you don’t have full oversight of where employees are creating or storing data, you can’t exercise compliance with legislation such as GDPR or CCPA.
Shadow IT case study: The banking industry was hit with a series of wide-reaching investigations — and record-breaking fines — after the SEC and other regulatory authorities began investigating the use of messaging apps for business purposes. The SEC has long made it clear that the Securities and Exchange Act retention rules apply toward any form of modern communication, including collaboration and messaging apps. Institutions which fail to wrap their arms around all the ways their employees are communicating leave themselves open to massive risk as a result.
One of the goals of an IT solutions stack is to integrate programs so employees can work efficiently. But if one team switches to a different application, that can create problems when working with others. Variations in user access and edit permissions between programs can create unnecessary barriers that prevent different departments from collaborating effectively.
A wider-reaching impact of shadow IT is to bake inefficiencies into the wider tech stack. Without full oversight, IT departments cannot accurately assess capacity and can’t plan for performance and security. Any analysis of the stack is incomplete and therefore inaccurate. And reports on business functions themselves might also be incomplete. This loss of control can lead to major decisions being made based on incorrect data.
The price of software is increasing. With more and more businesses locked into SaaS contracts in place of one-time purchase licenses, IT departments need to manage their costs more carefully than ever. Yet over a third of all software expenditure is wasted, costing U.S. businesses more than $30 billion annually.
Shadow IT impacts expenditure in several ways. First, most products begin to infiltrate the organization through free personal accounts. But to switch on a popular shadow IT program for business use typically requires enterprise licenses that come at considerable expense.
Existing software can also go unused if employees prefer shadow IT solutions, contributing to the $30 billion wasted each year. And shadow IT programs don’t always integrate well with the company’s existing IT infrastructure. This creates additional costs for security and compatibility.
How to Control Shadow IT in the Workplace
Getting ahead of shadow IT usage is critical for IT leaders looking to secure business data and maximize their budgets. The most important step is to audit the existing tech stack to understand where shadow IT already exists within the business infrastructure. Speaking to different departments across the company is fundamental, as each field uses unique software solutions.
Consider how to word questions about shadow IT usage to fully uncover a true picture. Four in five employees admit to using unauthorized IT applications for work purposes (G2). Some may not even consider the tools they use to be shadow IT or understand the risks they have introduced. Focus first on discovery, and then on reeducation to control shadow IT effectively.
How Aware Helps Organizations Manage Shadow IT
Bringing order to the chaos of remote work environments is what Aware is all about. Our platform provides comprehensive security and insights for collaboration solutions such as Slack, Microsoft Teams and Yammer and Workplace from Meta.
Protect your organization with AI/ML-infused workflows to monitor for data loss prevention and governance, risk and compliance. Ring-fence multiple collaboration solutions with a tool that works across your ecosystem. Simplify managing your IT stack with automated notifications for unauthorized activity. And manage it all from a single pane of glass.
To learn more about other risks facing the digital workplace, download our free whitepaper. Discover the top data security threats impacting modern enterprises, and how to take a proactive approach to securing your company data.
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Erdoğan victory casts long shadow over Turkish bank profits
The World's Largest P&C Insurers, 2023
The Worlds Largest Life Insurers, 2023
Essential IR Insights Newsletter Fall - 2023
Insurers get to grips with evolving net zero standards
- 1 Jun, 2023
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- Theme Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals Real Estate Banking Fintech Insurance
Turkish banks are expected to record sharply lower profits in 2023 as President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's reelection signals a continuation of an unpredictable banking sector policy that has upended lenders' business models.
Erdoğan's victory in the May 28 runoff gives him a mandate to maintain the country's unconventional economic approach, which has seen the central bank cut, rather than raise, interest rates and push banks to de-dollarize their balance sheets in response to soaring inflation. Requirements for high rates on bank savings accounts and caps on loan rates are crimping lending income, with further credit rationing likely.
Banks' profitability in 2022 was solid, largely thanks to lower funding costs following interest rate cuts and gains on inflation-linked bonds, Serhan Gok, an Istanbul-based economist and fund manager at investment fund Arista, told S&P Global Market Intelligence. This allowed lenders to achieve a return on equity that was close to inflation levels.
"This year they have no chance [of getting] that kind of return," he said.
Net income at four of Turkey's biggest listed banks — Türkiye Vakiflar Bankasi Türk Anonim Ortakligi, Yapi ve Kredi Bankasi AŞ, Turkiye Garanti Bankasi AS and Akbank TAS — is set to decline by between 24% and 32% year over year in 2023, according to analyst consensus estimates compiled by Market Intelligence. Estimates for Türkiye Is Bankasi AS, Türkiye Halk Bankasi AS and QNB Finansbank AS were not available.
The problem is acute for banks with foreign owners, whose repatriated profits have plummeted in value because of the lira's roughly 80% slump over the past five years. Garanti Bank is owned by Spain's Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria SA and QNB Finansbank by Qatar National Bank (QPSC). Meanwhile, state-owned banks such Vakiflar Bank and Halkbank have explicitly removed profitability targets from their strategies.
Vakiflar Bank, Yapi Kredi, Garanti Bank, Isbank and Halkbank did not respond to requests for comment.
The central bank has been forcing banks to convert deposits from foreign currency to lira as a way to convince savers to remain in lira deposits despite sharply negative real lira interest rates. Banks must buy local currency-denominated government bonds if their lira deposits fall short of certain thresholds. The government also guarantees depreciation-protected lira deposit accounts, and in March it scrapped an interest rate limit on them.
The central bank said June 1 that its "liraization" strategy, introduced in December 2012, is designed to "create an institutional basis for permanent and sustainable price stability" to foster macroeconomic stability and financial stability by bringing down the country risk premium, reversing the currency substitution and promoting a durable decline in financing costs.
"This would create a viable foundation for investment, production and employment to continue growing in a healthy and sustainable way," it said, echoing comments it has made previously.
About 2.40 trillion lira are in these protected accounts, compared to 10.36 trillion lira in other account types.
Such accounts probably pay 30% to 40% yields in dollar terms, Arda Tunca, an independent Bodrum-based economist told Market Intelligence.
"Turkey cannot bear these costs — it's impossible to carry on like this in the long term," Tunca said.
Such a program is "the only way to convince people to remain in so-called Turkish deposit accounts and not demand FX," said Arista's Gok. The accounts will remain necessary unless official interest rates rise to near inflation levels, he said. Since 2021, though, the central bank has slashed the benchmark interest rate by more than half to 8.5%. Annual inflation was 44% in April.
Lending has slowed as it becomes increasingly tough for banks to assess and price risk. Declining credit growth has lowered inflation.
"But it's not a sustainable strategy," said Tunca. " Erdoğan getting reelected was bad news for the banking sector."
The central bank may be amenable to loosening some of its liraization policies, Reuters reported, citing bankers present at a recent meeting with central bank deputy governor Taha Cakmak. The central bank supported a decision by banks to scrap a prepaid premium for those opening depreciation-protected accounts, the bankers said.
Turkey's 12-month rolling current account deficit is about $54 billion. Sovereign debt repayments and energy import costs will likely lead to a balance of payments crisis in Turkey and capital controls, Mustafa Murat Kubilay, a non-resident scholar at the Middle East Institute in Istanbul, told Market Intelligence . It is possible that this may begin in autumn or early winter, he said.
"It's going to be very difficult for the conventional banking sector," said Kubilay, predicting a "credit crunch" in the final quarter of 2023. "Private banks will implement more credit rationing."
Banks also face stricter lending criteria whereby new commercial borrowers must show evidence of the need to pay a supplier. This "credit against expenditure" method sees banks pay creditors directly, meaning borrowers cannot spend the money elsewhere or convert borrowings into foreign currencies.
Since mid-May the rules have also applied to other borrowers including small- and medium-sized businesses and state-owned entities, said Tunca.
As of May 31, US$1 was equivalent to 20.71 Turkish lira.
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Doç. Dr. Mehmet Şahin GÖK İşletme
- Doktora: 2005 - 2011 Gebze Institute of Technology, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Operations and Management, PhD 2009 - 2010 University of Minnesota, Carlson School of Management, Department of Operations and Management Science, Visiting PhD Thesis Title: Efficiency Evaluation of Turkish Hospitals by using Data Envelopment Analysis
- Yüksek lisans: 2002 - 2005 Gebze Institute of Technology, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Operations and Management, MBA Thesis Title: ERP Sistemlerinin Başarısını Etkileyen Faktörler
- Lisans: 1998 - 2002 Kocaeli University Faculty of Engineering Department of Industrial Engineering, B.A
Uluslararası Hakemli Dergilerde Yayınlanan Makaleler (SCI, SSCI)
A Yüksel, MŞ Gök, G Özer, E Ciğerm (2021), “A new theoretical approach to intellectual capital: Meta-synthesis definitions of innovative literacy”, Journal of Intellectual Capital (Q1 Journal)
Altuntaş F., Gök M.Ş. (2021), "The Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Domestic Tourism: A DEMATEL Method Analysis on Quarantine Decisions", International Journal of Hospitality Management (Q1 Journal) , Vol. 92
Altuntaş F., Gök M.Ş. (2021), "Analysis of Patent Documents with Utility Mining: A Case Study of Wind Energy Technology", Kybernetes, doi.org/10.1108/K-06-2020-0365
Altuntaş F., Gök M.Ş. (2021), "Technological evolution of wind energy with social network analysis", Kybernetes, doi.org/10.1108/K-11-2019-0761.
A Özdemir, H Kitapçı, MŞ Gök, E Ciğerim (2021), “Efficiency Assessment of Operations Strategy Matrix in Healthcare Systems of US States Amid COVID-19: Implications for Sustainable Development Goals”, Sustainability (Q1 Journal)
Azize Ş., Kitapçı H., Altındağ E., Gök M.Ş. (2017). Investigating the Impacts of Brand Experience and Service Quality. International Journal of Market Research, 59(6), 707-725.
Gök M. Ş. Altındağ E., (2015) “Analysis of the Cost and Efficiency Relationship: Experience in Turkish Pay for Performance System” European Journal of Health Economics, 16(5),
Gök M. Ş., Sezen B., “Analyzing the Ambiguous Relationship between Efficiency, Quality and Patient Satisfaction in Healthcare Services: The Case of Public Hospitals in Turkey” Health Policy, Vol.111, 2013
Gök M. Ş., Sezen B., “Capacity Inefficiencies of Teaching and Non-Teaching Hospitals” The Service Industries Journal, (Q1 Journal) Vol 32(13-14), 2012.
Uluslararası Diğer Hakemli Dergilerde Yayınlanan Makaleler
AT Usta, MŞ Gök, E Ciğerim, (2020) “Consumer Responses to Sustainable Supply Chain Implementations”, IOSR Journal of Business and Management
Özer G. Ciğerim E. Gök M.Ş. (2020) Entellektüel Sermaye ve Bilgi Yönetiminin Firma Performansına Etkisi, Business and Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(5), 4611-4645
Özer G. Gök M.Ş. Merter A.K. (2020) Proje Maliyet Tahmini: Alternatif Yaklaşımlar, Journal of Yaşar University, 15
Alasaad T. Gök M.Ş. (2019). Generating Factors of Success and Failure of Companies: Empirical Research on Turkish Companies, International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8, 2S8, 973-982.
Gök M. Ş., Öngel V., Altındağ E. (2018). Analyzing the Interplay Between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures: The Case of Emerging Economies. Journal of Global Strategic Management, 12(2), 53-62.
Gök G.O, Gök M.Ş. (2016). Emerging Economies Comparative Analysis of MIST and IBSA Countries. Eurasian Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), 1-13.
Ertürk A., Arıcı T., Çömlek O., Gök M.Ş. (2017). A New Approach to Sea Transportation: An Application in Turkey. Research in Business and Social Science, 6(1), 117-126.
Öngel V., Gök M. Ş. “The Reflection of Health Spending on the Community Health: Comparative Analysis of Emerging Countries”, European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, Vol.3(6), 2014.
Gök M. Ş. “Improving Service Quality in Turkish Healthcare: The Role of Medical Technology” International Review of Economics and Management, 2014
Gök M. Ş., Sezen B., “Analyzing the Efficiencies of Hospitals in Turkey: An Application of DEA” Journal of Global Strategic Management, Vol 5(2), 2011.
Sezen B., Gök M. Ş., “Hastane Verimliliklerinin Veri Zarflama Analiziyle Değerlendirilmesi” METU Studies in Development, Vol 36(2), 2009.
N Ozkan, KN Bulut, MŞ Gök, G Özer (2021), “Controlling Shadow IT: Case Study from a Turkish Bank”, 6th International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering
Özkan N. Gök M.Ş. Köse B.Ö. (2020) Towards a Better Understanding of Agile Mindset by Using Principles of Agile Methods, IEEE Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems FedCSIS
Özkan N. Gök M.Ş. (2020) Investigation of Agile Mindset Elements by Using Literature Review for a Better Understanding of Agility, IEEE Software Engineering Symposium&amp;amp;#160;
Karataş Ş.A., Karataş M., Gök M.Ş. (2019). OECD Ülkelerinin Kümeleme Analizi İle Sağlık Durum Göstergelerine Göre Sınıflandırılması, International Marmara Social Sciences Congress
Dilber S., Gök M. Ş. (2019). Envanter Yönetiminin Firma Performansına Etkileri Yönetim Bilişim Sistemleri Uygulamaları, 5th International Congress on Social Sciences - Humanities and Education
Gök M.Ş. Usta A.T., Ciğerim E., Arıcı T. (2019). Relationship Between Sustainable Supply Chain Management Implemantations and Environmental Performance: A Conceptul Review. V. International Caucasus-Central Asia Foreign Trade and Logistics Congress.
Artar M., Usta A.T., Erdil O., Gök M.Ş. (2019). The Role of Perceived Support in of Entrepreneurial Intention, International Conference of Business and Organization Research.
Artar M., Usta A.T., Erdil O., Gök M.Ş. (2019). Identification of the Unknown Unkowns in the Project Management Process, International Conference of Business and Organization Research.
Gök M.Ş., Ciğerim E., Arıcı T. (2018). Analyzing the Ambiguous Relationship Between Technological Orientation and Green Management. ISCM 14th International Strategic Management Conference.
Ciğerim E., Arıcı T., Sultan S., Gök M.Ş. (2018). A New Era for Entrepreneurship Ecosystem: Opportunities of Industry 4.0. 8th International Conference on Leadership, Technology, Innovation and Business Management.
Gök M.Ş., Ciğerim E., Arıcı T. (2018). Evaluation of Innovative Entrepreneurship Ecosystem: Technology Audit. Fourth International Scientific Conference.
Ciğerim E., Arıcı T., Gök M.Ş. (2018). Black Box of Industry 4.0: New Opportunities for Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. Fourth International Scientific Conference.
Kükrek S. Gök M.Ş. (2018). A New Business Model by SANLAB: Implemantation of Simulation Technologies in Education. 8th International Conference on Leadership, Technology, Innovation and Business Management.
Altuntaş F., Gök M.Ş. (2018). Prioritization of the Investment Capability of Coutries Using Electre Method. 2nd. International Conference on New Approaches in Social Science and Humaties.&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#160;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#160;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#160;
Arıcı T. Gök M.Ş. (2016). Başarılı Yalın Üretim Sistemlerinin Kazanımları: İşletmelerde Örgütsel Yenilikçilik Modeli. Uluslararası Katılımlı 16. Üretim Araştırmaları Sempozyumu.
Gök M.Ş., Ciğerim E. (2016). Total Quality Management for Green Supply Chain Management Redesigning the Organizational Processes. 19th EBES Conference.
Ciğerim E., Gök M.Ş. (2016). Flexible Management for New Business Models. 35th InternationalBusiness Research Conference.
Gök M.Ş., Çömlek O., Arıcı T. (2016). A new approach to sea transportation Turkey application. 6th International Conference on Leadership, Technology, Innovation and Business Management.
Arıcı T. Gök M.Ş. (2016). Yeşil Tedarik Zinciri Yönetimine Yenilikçi Bakış Açısı: Süreç̧ Bazlı Yalın Üretim Sistematiği. Uluslararası Katılımlı 16. Üretim Araştırmaları Sempozyumu&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#160;
Gök M.Ş., Arıcı T. (2016). Dynamic Quality Management Approach For Lean Management Systems A Future Perspective For Companies. Global Business Research Congress.
Gök M.Ş., Arıcı T.&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#160;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#160;(2016). Assesing The Effect of Environmental Management and Lean Production Systems on Firm Performance. Global Business Research Congress.
Gök M.Ş. (2015). Comparative Analysis of Environmental Performance in G8 and G20 Countries. Fifth International Conference on Industrial Engineering Operations Management Conference.
Gök G. O., Gök M. Ş. “The Rise of MIST: An Illusion or a Real Challenge to World Order”, 4th Global International Studies Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 2014
Gök M. Ş. “Strategic Relationship between Efficiency and Service Quality: The Research on the Public Hospitals in Turkey”, 13th EBES Conference, İstanbul, 2014
Gök M. Ş., Sezen B. "Performansa Dayalı Ödeme Sisteminin Türkiye’deki Hastane Verimliliklerine Etkisi" Uluslararası Sağlıkta Performans ve Kalite Kongresi, Antalya, 19-21 Mart, 2009.
Gök M. Ş., Sezen B. " Türkiye’de Hastane Bütçesinin Verimliliğe Etkisi" Uluslararası Sağlıkta Performans ve Kalite Kongresi, Antalya, 19-21 Mart, 2009.
Gök M. Ş., Sezen B., “Logistic Management and Just-In-Time Manufacturing System” International Logistic Congress Dokuzeylül Üniversitesi, 2-3 Kasım 2004, İzmir Türkiye.
Gök M. Ş., “ERP Sisteminin Organizasyonel Performansa Etkisi” Istanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi 5th Operation Research Conference, 25-27 Kasım 2004, Istanbul Türkiye.
Gök M. Ş., (2017) Üretim Yönetimi, Kriter Yayınevi, Basım Sayısı:1, ISBN:978-605-9336-50-5.
Ulusal Hakemli Dergilerde Yayınlanan Makaleler
Altuntaş F. Gök M.Ş. (2020) Ülkelerin Yatırım Yapılabilirliklerinin Değerlendirilmesi TOPSİS ve COPRAS Yöntemleriyle Bir Uygulama, Verimlilik Dergisi, 4, 41-64
Arıcı T., Gök M.Ş. (2017). Yenilikçi Süreç̧ Yönetiminde Yalın Üretim Sistematiği. Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 10(1), 62-73.
Gök M.Ş., Arıcı T. (2016). Yalın Üretim Sistemleri ve Çevresel Yönetimde Yenilikçi Yaklaşım: Teknolojik Yönelim. Turkish Studies, 11(21), 113-124.
Gök M.Ş., Arıcı T. (2016). Yalın Yönetim Sistemlerinde Alternatif Yaklaşım Dinamik Kalite Yönetimi. Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (KOSBED), 31, 135-143.
Nar Y., Gök M.Ş. (2016). Dinamik Çevre Etkisinde Pazarlama Stratejileri ve Pazar Performansı Analizi: Bilişim Sektörü Değerlendirmesi. Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 9(1), 134-147.
Sezen B., Gök M.Ş. (2009). Veri Zarflama Analizi Yöntemi ile Hastane Verimliliklerinin İncelenmesi. ODTÜ Gelişme Dergisi, 36(2), 383-403.
Özşahin M., Ciğerim E., Gök M. Ş., “Rekabet Edebilirlik ve Firma Performansı İlişkisi: Saha Araştırması” IIBF Gazi Üniveristesi Dergisi, Vol 7(1), 2005.
Erdil O., Gök M. Ş., Ciğerim E., “Aile İşletmeleri Yönetimi” Kültür Üniversitesi 1st Aile İşletmeleri Kongresi, 17-18 Nisan 2004, İstanbul Türkiye.
Erdil O., Gök M. Ş., Ciğerim E., “Aile İşletmelerinde Girişimcilik, Teknolojik ve Network Yeteneğinin Firma Performansına Etkileri” Kültür Üniversitesi 1st Aile İşletmeleri Kongresi, 17-18 Nisan 2004, İstanbul, Türkiye.
Gök M. Ş., Özşahin M., Ciğerim E., “Rekabet Edebilirlik ve Firma Performansı İlişkisi: Saha Araştırması” Uludağ Üniversitesi 12st Yönetim Organizasyon Kongresi, 27-29 Mayıs 2004, İstanbul Türkiye.
2015- 1002 TÜBİTAK Projesi, 214K003 “Yükselen Ekonomilerin Karşılaştırmalı Analizi Ve Kantitatif Değerlendirme Kriterlerinin Oluşturulması”
2008- 1002 TÜBİTAK Projesi, 107K169 “Türkiye'deki Hastanelerin Veri Zarflama Analizi Yöntemi ile Sahipliklerine Göre Verimliliklerinin Tespiti ve Yıllar Arasındaki Verimlilik Değişimlerinin İncelenmesi”
2009- İBB Projem İstanbul Akademik Projesi, “”Şehzadebaşı Polikliniğinde Performans ve Müşteri Memnuniyet Ölçüm Kriterlerinin Belirlenmesi ve Ölçüm Sisteminin Oluşturulması
Kişinin DersWeb siteleri
- GİR 544 Yönetim Bilişim Sistemleri
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Fresh from receiving a gong that ranks him above his peers, Turkey’s top central banker has received a further vote of quiet confidence for his management of the country’s consumption -hungry economy.
Erdem Basci, recently chosen as Central Banker of the Year by The Banker, the FT’s sister publication, can now also point to a favourable review by Fitch Ratings for one of the complicated mechanisms with which he seeks to slow the economy down.
A year or so ago international investors and bankers would often complain that they simply didn’t understand Basci’s policies – particularly his use of an interest rate corridor , or range, rather than a single policy rate.
But twelve months on, he is getting better reviews, as the Turkish economy has slowed from its unsustainable rate of 2010-2011 without juddering to a halt. Hefty interest rate rises played their part in the process, as did the European Central Bank’s longer-term refinancing operation, which helped keep foreign funds flowing into Turkey – together with Basci’s technocratic steering of the ship.
One of the key considerations in making sure that the country’s economy doesn’t overheat again is keeping a rein on loan growth, which in the recent past has soared by some 30 per cent a year. Those new loans helped Turks satisfy their hunger for imported goods and so pushed up the current account deficit, perhaps Turkey’s most vulnerable weak spot.
In a note issued on Thursday, Fitch says that a new system of bank reserve requirements “may reduce somewhat the risk of a return to very rapid loan growth”.
Janine Dow, senior director at Fitch, depicts the new measures as more a signal of intent rather than a meaningful constraint on big banks’ lending decisions, but sees them as helpful all the same.
High leverage is not a problem for the Turkish banking system and the fact that they are far away from the [relevant reserve] trigger ratios means that it is pretty much an ineffective regulation, particularly for the larger banks,” she says. “But I suppose it is another way of saying we don’t want you to create any bubble in the Turkish economy, through excessive lending or similar steps.
In the note Fitch explains how the new system works:
The new policy tool, effective from Q413, will require banks with leverage ratios below 3.5% to hold additional reserves, ranging from one to two percentage points. The threshold will increase up to 4% in Q414 and to 5% in Q415. The leverage ratios of Fitch-rated banks [the agency rates 30 of Turkey's bigger banks] are mostly in the 7%-9% range, comfortably above the new requirement.
Fitch notes that loan growth slowed to an annualised 15 per cent for the first nine months of last year; it expects the level this year to be “somewhat higher” but still below 20 per cent, partly because of the continued inflow of foreign funds. It also expects a still respectable but far from overheated 3.8 per cent rate of GDP growth for 2013.
As the agency acknowledges, risks remain for the Turkish economy. Even top Turkish officials recognise that the current account deficit may yet widen once more once domestic demand revives and extraordinary exports such as gold sales to Iran fade away. The country remains heavily reliant on foreign portfolio capital. Against all of this the new rules may not count for all that much. Dow cautions: “Even if sector lending grew by 20 per cent it would be nowhere near these triggers.”
But all the same the rules’ favourable reception seems to show that these are rather kinder times for Turkey’s central bank and its chief.
Related reading: Turkey trade figures: good on the surface, worrying beneath , beyondbrics Turkey cuts policy interest rate as economy slows , beyondbrics Turkish growth: up, thanks to the gold , beyondbrics Turkey borrowing at record low cost , beyondbrics
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