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Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies pp 348–355 Cite as

Computer-Assisted Learning

  • Pedro De Bruyckere 2 , 3 &
  • Paul A. Kirschner 4 , 5  
  • Reference work entry
  • First Online: 01 January 2020

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Computer-assisted instruction ; Computer-aided instruction ; Computer-based learning ; Computer-mediated learning

This contribution explores computer-assisted learning (CAL) from a number of different angles. First, it discusses the many synonyms that exist for the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in education. Within these synonyms are concepts which often hide subtle but important differences from both a technological as well as a pedagogical/educational point of view. It proceeds with a short history of CAL. While CAL as an entity was first used in the early 1960s of the previous century (1960s), the concept underlying its use has roots dating back to the beginning of that century. The third and final part will focus on the effectiveness of CAL in education which will lead to an adaptation of the current definition.

What’s in a Name?

In their Dictionary of Computing , Daintith and Wright ( 2008 ) describe CAL as

[a]ny use of computers to aid or support the...

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Arteveldehogeschool, Ghent, Belgium

Pedro De Bruyckere

Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands

Paul A. Kirschner

University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Correspondence to Pedro De Bruyckere .

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Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Arthur Tatnall

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De Bruyckere, P., Kirschner, P.A. (2020). Computer-Assisted Learning. In: Tatnall, A. (eds) Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies. Springer, Cham.

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2020, Science International

Remedial classes are important interventions to help learners catch up to their peers. Remedial classes usually do not follow the same setting and scheduling as regular classes and, because of this, there is a need to utilize innovative instructions. This study explored the use of three different modalities of computer-aided instruction (CAI) in remedial classes namely, Powerpoint presentation (PPT), Audiovisual presentation (AVP), and PhET simulation (PhET). The results show that the pretest and posttest scores of the students in remedial classes using CAI's differ significantly, with the scores under PPT having the best improvement. The results promote the advantage of using CAI's in remedial classes.

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Multiple Choice

  • Computer-assisted presentations are enhanced by the following: a. Read your bullet points on PowerPoint slides to your audience b. Provide lots of animation and clever graphics for each slide c. Practice with the technology before giving your presentation d. All of the above
  • Guidelines for competent use of visual aids include a. avoid simple visual aids; they are too commonplace b. almost any visual aid is preferable to no aid at all c. an occasional misspelling or grammatical error on a poster or slide is fine as long as you don’t have too many d. none of the above
  • Which of the following is a common mistake made by speakers who use visual aids? a. Standing in front of the visual aid, blocking the audience’s view b. Using a font size of 44 points for PowerPoint slide headings when lecturing in a large auditorium using a huge screen c. Covering visual aids when not referring to them; this prevents audience members from studying the aid carefully d. All of the above
  • You are giving a speech on Middle East crises in the last decade. Recognizing that most members of your audience cannot identify most countries and their locations, you should a. draw a map of the Middle East while giving your speech b. provide a bar graph about each country c. show a large map of the Middle East taken from a geography book d. provide a table that lists all Middle Eastern countries with directions that give their locations
  • You want to demonstrate the perils of gum disease. Which of the following would be an effective visual aid? a. Asking for a volunteer from the audience and showing the state of his or her gums for all to see b. Showing a large photo of gum disease c. Drawing a picture on the whiteboard showing potential “hot spots” for gum disease d. All of the above

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Computer Aided Instruction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

computer assisted presentation

Computer Aided Instruction

Introduction – powerpoint ppt presentation.

  • Inam Ul Haq
  • University of Okara
  • Email
  • Website
  • List of Innovative methods later in detail
  • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
  • Web based Instruction (WBI)
  • Use and Requirements
  • Programmed Instruction (PI)
  • Computer assisted Instruction (CAI)
  • Web based instruction (WBI)
  • Power Point based instruction and so on.
  • Innovative methods (situational)
  • Quick learning
  • More learning
  • Longer retention
  • Terminology
  • Use of computer in education is referred by many names such as
  • Computer Aided Instruction (CAI)
  • Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)
  • Computer Based Education (CBE)
  • Computer Based Instruction (CBI)
  • Computer Enriched Instruction (CEI)
  • Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
  • New Terminology
  • Web Based Training (WBT)
  • Web Based Learning (WBL)
  • Web Based Instruction (WBI)
  • Computer-based education (CBE) and computer-based instruction (CBI) are the broadest terms and can refer to virtually any kind of computer use in educational settings.
  • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) or Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) is a narrower term and most often refers to drill-and-practice, tutorial, or simulation activities.
  • Computer-managed instruction (CMI) Computer-managed instruction is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, record keeping, progress tracking, and assessment of learner performance.
  • A self-learning technique, usually offline/online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
  • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.
  • CAI uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process.
  • CAI refers to the use of the computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction. CAI programs use tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, and problem solving approaches to present topics and they test the student's understanding.
  • After the development of a small commercial computer in U.S.A to process census data around 1960
  • Development of PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) - around 1964
  • Development of computerized tutorials in arithmetic and reading for elementary school children by Patrick Suppes of Stanford University in 1966 and infact he was considered to be the father of CAI.
  • CAI is suitable for all type of teaching and learning activities.
  • As the learners performance is going to be recorded automatically in the computer memory, immediate feedback can be provided to the learners by the teachers and also the teachers can use the data in making the best teaching strategy for the learner in future.
  • CAI can be provided simultaneously even for 4000 students and thereby it facilitates individualized instruction.
  • Text or multimedia content
  • Multiple-choice questions
  • Immediate feedback
  • Notes on incorrect responses
  • Summarizes students' performance
  • Exercises for practice
  • Worksheets and tests.
  • Drill and Practice
  • Instructional game
  • Problem solving
  • one-to-one interaction
  • great motivator
  • freedom to experiment with different options
  • instantaneous response/immediate feedback to the answers elicited
  • Self pacing - allow students to proceed at their own pace
  • Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learn
  • multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach
  • self directed learning students can decide when, where, and what to learn
  • A poor substitute for actual experience
  • Software limitations
  • Restricted Text displays
  • Learning becomes too mechanical
  • Hardware limitations
  • Giving Instruction with the help of web /websites
  • It requires the following-
  • Computer based skills
  • Web Designing skills
  • Steps involved in web based Instruction
  • Preparation of story board
  • Preparation of web layout
  • E-content creation
  • Arrangement of segmented content
  • Necessary animations / transitions
  • Additional clues / links / help
  • Required audio / video
  • E-resources
  • Duration of each frame
  • Development of content by using the story board
  • converting into web pages
  • Registering for domain
  • Web hosting
  • Power Point based instruction
  • use of hyperlinks
  • Getting the required slide
  • Use of blank slides
  • Use of mobile in navigation
  • Power point auto run software
  • For further clarifications
  • Please mail to
  • For Summary of this lecture
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Computer Assisted Learning “Computer-assisted learning (CAL) is to convey a vast amount of information in a very short period of time. It is a powerful method of reinforcing concepts and topics first introduced to you through your textbook, and discussion in the classroom. Computer-assisted learning enables you in a powerful way to comprehend complex concepts.”

Characteristics Self-Paced This unique characteristic enables learners to move as slowly or as quickly as they like. Material included in the program can be reviewed again and again, as many times as the students require, without any consequences or set backs from the program. This also helps eliminate the negative reinforcement of students’ possible lack of mastery of previously taught instructional material.

Contd…… Self-Directed This describes the ability of learners to decide what they want to learn, and in what order they want to learn it, based on their unique learning abilities and characteristics, in order to benefit, enhance, and individualize the learning process for students.

Contd…… Use of Various Senses Computer assisted Instruction (CAI) uses computers and various forms of technology that allow students to process instructional material using a variety of different senses. The more senses, or learning channels through which information is processed, the easier it is for students to remember and learn that information.

PURPOSES OF CAI Learning Rate- It is found that CAI enhances student learning rate. Student learning rate has proven to be as much as forty percent faster with CAI than with traditional instruction. Retention of Learning-According to researchers, student scores on initial tests and delayed tests indicate that students instructed using CAI retain more content than if they had been instructed using traditional instruction only. Attitudes- A lot of the research examining CAI strategies and their effects on student achievement and learning outcomes simultaneously observes how student attitudes are effected by this instructional strategy. This has led many researchers to the consensus that using CAI strategies will lead to more positive student attitudes than conventional instruction.

Contd… Locus of Control-Students instructed using CAI strategies have more of an internal sense of self-efficacy and ability to control their own learning. Attendance- Students had better attendance when instructed using CAI strategies. Motivation and Time on Task-Studies show that students instructed by the use of CAI strategies have higher rates of time spent on task in class than students instructed using traditional instruction only. Cooperation and Collaboration-Cooperative and positive social behaviors are greater among students instructed using CAI strategies.

Contd…… Variety of Media The utilization of technology and computers by this strategy encourages student learning by providing a constantly stimulating environment and promotes enthusiasm by presenting academic content in a way that is interactive, enjoyable and relatable for students. Students are exposed to different types of media that they otherwise may not have experienced or interacted with.

PROCESS OF CAI & CAL Choose a relevant topic. Decide the cognitive level of the students, aimed by the module i.e knowledge, understanding, or problem-solving. Decide the computer assisted learning mode to be used. DevelopCAL sequence in the forms of frames. Introductory frame gives directions to the learner. Learning frame presents the matter to the learner. Test frame tests the learners and gives appropriate feedback. Pre-validate the CAL by sharing them with peers and students and get feedback. Too easy, rigid, difficult parts need to be revised. Get the written CAL module converted to a computer program. Do post-validation of the CAL program and make corrections if needed. Release CAL unit for learners to use and learn.

Instructional Software: A Taxonomy Applications Drill-and-Practice Tutorials Simulation Instructional Games Problem-Solving Multimedia Teacher Utilities

Types of Instructional Software • 1. Applications • Definition • A group of applications programs that is designed to automate general-purpose and specific tasks such as word processing, database management, spreadsheet, attendance, accounting, grade reporting, scheduling and others. • Features • acquire knowledge and insight about content and processes. • enhance problem-solving and thinking skills. • enhance students’ technical skills. • enhance student’s personal productivity.

Types of Instructional Software Example MS Excel Excel one of the most popular spreadsheet programs that can used to teach management processes and enhance problem-solving and thinking skills in mathematics and science.

Types of Instructional Software • 2. Drill and Practice • Definition • Drill and practice software provides exercises in which students work example items one at a time and receive feedback on their correctness. • Features • Reinforce instruction by providing the repetition necessary to move acquired skills and concepts into long-term memory. • Capture and retain the attention of students. • Save teachers’ time and efforts. • Personalize instruction by meeting individual differences among learners.

Types of Instructional Software • Example • ECS Keyboard • Enables students to: • Play notes on the keyboard after seeing them written. • Identify played notes by assessing intervals from played/written notes • Playback written notes quickly.

Types of Instructional Software Example Master the Facts Multiplication: This program was created in response to teachers to use in their classrooms to teach multiplication. Students using Master the Facts Multiplication for as little as ten minutes a day to practice multiplication skills may demonstrate marked improvement in multiplication skills on quizzes and tests..

Types of Instructional Software • 3. Tutorials • Definition • A tutorial exposes the learner to material that is believed not to have been previously taught or learned. A tutorial often includes pre-test, post test and drill and practice activities. • Features • Follow linear programmed instruction or branching design. • Encourage students to interact, control and response to the program. • Guide the learner throughout learning from the beginning (objectives) to the end (evaluation). • Have computer-management capabilities (e.g. data collection).

Types of Instructional Software • Example • Auslan Sign Tutorial • This system provides an easy-to-use and interactive tutorial for learning the basics in communicating in the Australian Sign Language (Auslan). • 3D model for signing. • 3D model shows emotion. • Numbers Mode. • Over 60 sign phrases to learn. • Random Quiz tests.

Types of Instructional Software Example Food Hygiene This tutorial is designed to teach students at a school of medicine a complete course on food hygiene which concerns food and the prevention of illness and maintenance of health. Uses well-prepared text supported by pictures, audio and video clips.

Types of Instructional Software • 4. Simulations • Definition • A simulation is a computerized model of real or imagined system designed to teach how a system works and allows learners to create their own sequence for using simulation. • Features • Involve students into learning process. • Compress time or slow down processes. • Save money and resources. • Make experimentation safe. • Make impossible situations possible and controllable. • Let student repeat events as many times as they want.

Types of Instructional Software Example Infinite Physics Simulator Infinite physics simulator has a large collection of objects useful for optics simulation including mirrors, prisms, lenses and other transparent objects.

Types of Instructional Software Example Curvilinear Friendly design, users do not need to get trained to operate these tools. Using buttons, textboxes and slide bars learners can run or stop the experiment and change the parameters of the phenomena.

Types of Instructional Software • 5. Instructional Games • Definition • Instructional games are courseware designed to motivate learning by adding game rules to learning activities. • Features • Make learning fun and motivating (Edutainment). • Motivate learners via the challenge of competition. • Engage the learner in a situation where the learner is competing for a high score. • Include elements of adventure and uncertainty. • Provide different levels of complexity that match player’s ability.

Types of Instructional Software Example Save the Math Apples Help the monkey save the apples! Click on the basket with the number to give the answer. Keep clicking the basket to add numbers to your answer.

Types of Instructional Software Example Jungle Jim and the Donga Dinga Drums This interactive game encourages kids to play with numbers and multiplication concept and win points as long as he/she hits the right number.

Types of Instructional Software • 6. Problem-Solving • Definition • Problem-solving software is a type of content-free orcontent-based programs that places emphasis on critical thinking, analysis, logic and reasoning via the presentation of set of data or problematic event. • Features • Stress thinking processes rather than correct answers. • Expose students to a series of activities that would help teach the desired skills. • Help students work together in small teams. • Give students opportunities to see how information applies to actual problems. • Vary the amount of direction and assistance depending on the each student’s needs.

Types of Instructional Software Example StressAlyzer This program provides students with many problems in Mechanics of Materials to solve. Students get immediate feedback on whether they solve each problem correctly, and they are offered randomly generated versions of similar problems until they can be solved correctly.

Types of Instructional Software • 7. Multimedia • Definition • Programs that support the interactive use of text, audio, still images, video and graphics and manipulate them to support learning. • Features • Enhance text only presentations by adding interesting sounds and compelling visuals. • Engage a variety of learning modalities (visual, auditory and possibly kinesthetic) which can appeal to various learner styles simultaneously. • Allow development of more engaging, persuasive presentations. • Focus practice of skills that support transfer of learning.

Types of Instructional Software Example Scholar’s Desktop. This program provides a series of modules for teaching, using a combination of media. Students can visit many museums around the world and explore many environments as they visit it.

Types of Instructional Software Example MS Photo Story This authoring tool allows students to create their own digital stories using text, audio and pictures and export their projects into a digital movie.

Types of Instructional Software • 8. Teacher Utilities • Definition • Non-instructional or administrative programs used to prepare instructional materials or organize, store, evaluate and report information on pupils’ achievement and progress. • Features • Based on the principle of database management. • Manipulate classroom and examination data. • Permit the teacher to have untold amounts of information. • Reduce the amount of repetitive paper work. • Create and maintain lesson plans. • Create and print a school calendar. Example: HeadMaster 2007 []

Types of Instructional Software Example Head Master Specifically designed for teachers. HeadMaster can handle grading, reporting, and scheduling. From administration to accounting to registrar duties, HeadMaster's flexible, customizable interface provides a complete solution for your school's office.

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Cambridge Dictionary

  • Cambridge Dictionary +Plus

English pronunciation of computer-assisted


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(English pronunciations of computer-assisted from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus and from the Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary , both sources © Cambridge University Press)


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to talk for a long time about subjects such as the meaning of life

Understanding AI jargon: Artificial intelligence vocabulary

Understanding AI jargon: Artificial intelligence vocabulary

computer assisted presentation

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  1. PPT

    computer assisted presentation

  2. PPT

    computer assisted presentation

  3. PPT

    computer assisted presentation

  4. PPT

    computer assisted presentation

  5. Modern Instructional Materials: Advantages of Computer-Assisted

    computer assisted presentation

  6. What Is Computer-Assisted Teaching? (with pictures)

    computer assisted presentation



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  2. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)

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  4. PPT

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  17. Computer Assisted Learning Ppt Powerpoint Presentation Styles Example

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  18. PPT

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  19. PPT

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  20. Practically Speaking Chapter 11 Flashcards

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  21. PPT

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    computer-assisted pronunciation. How to say computer-assisted. Listen to the audio pronunciation in English. Learn more.