article writing year 7

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Importance of Article Writing Year 7

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7th grade writing

by: Hank Pellissier | Updated: August 4, 2022

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Your seventh grader’s writing under Common Core Standards

Seventh graders need to avoid dangling modifiers, hasty drafts, and plagiarism! They rewrite to tighten their writing. They critique each other’s essays to learn what’s vague or missing. Finally, they study phrases, clauses, and sentence structure.

Seeing both sides

Your young adult’s critical thinking skills will be put to use this year. In argument papers , students express their fact-based opinions. In a strong paper, they also acknowledge — and use facts to argue against — opposing viewpoints. Your seventh grader’s writing should demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic, use clear logic, and incorporate solid evidence from reputable sources .

Your child’s papers should be written in formal language, with clear introductions and concise conclusions that summarize their position. Sounds pretty adult, right? Never fear, assignments are often on tween-friendly social issues, such as Do middle schoolers spend too much time on Instagram ?

We formally inform you

Your seventh grader will also write informative and explanatory papers on science and social studies topics. They’ll be expected to employ a range of “strategy tools” such as:

  • Adding definitions for complex words or ideas.
  • Using academic vocabulary .
  • Adding concrete details.
  • Choosing quotations.
  • Comparing and contrasting concepts.
  • Citing cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Classifying information.
  • Formatting (e.g., headings, bullet points).
  • Including graphics (e.g., charts, images) and multimedia.

The language your child uses in these papers should be formal and precise. They should use transition words (e.g. so, if, for, as, and but ) and phrases (e.g. in view of these facts, under these particular circumstances ) to connect ideas and help their writing flow. Finally, your child write have a succinct synopsis as a conclusion.

Believe it.. or not?

Some of the most fun — and challenging — writing of the year will be narrative story assignments that portray actual events (e.g. memoirs, personal history ) or imagined experiences (e.g. fiction, fantasy ). Your child should experiment with effective storytelling techniques. These may include character development, plot twists and pacing, precise descriptions, tone of the narrator’s voice, crisp dialogue, and adventurous action. In class, kids will learn and practice transition vocabulary to help guide readers from one scene or timeframe to another (e.g. Meanwhile, back at the space station; Centuries earlier, when Brontosaurus first roamed the swamps… ).

Tear it apart and start again

Don’t be dismayed if your seventh grader is asked to replan, re-outline, revise, re-edit, and/or rewrite many of their papers. This isn’t perfectionism or punishment — it helps students sharpen the precision, complexity, pacing, and variation of their literary technique. “By the time I am nearing the end of a story,” says Roald Dahl, author of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , “the first part will have been reread and altered and corrected at least 150 times. …Good writing is essentially rewriting.”

Collaborating online

Seventh graders interact and collaborate online to create and publish writing that links to online sources. Regular online communication with teachers — often in Google docs and other sharing tools — is increasingly prevalent, along with emailing or uploading completed assignments. The challenge for kids? Believable replacements for the classic excuse: “My dog ate my homework.”

Understanding and avoiding cheating

Seventh grade is the year of short research projects using sources like reference books, magazines, and data found online. Your young researcher will learn how to judge the accuracy and credibility of their sources . (For example, Does MAD Magazine have the same integrity as the Boston Globe ? No!) Kids learn to paraphrase information and use quotes to avoid plagiarizing. To plagiarize is defined as “ to copy another person’s ideas, words or work and pretend that they are your own,” and it is a form of cheating that has reached epidemic proportions. Citing their work correctly is the antidote for this error. Papers should follow formats for citations and end with a bibliography.

Grammar with a capital G

Kids learn about phrases , defined as two or more words that express an idea but are not a complete thought or sentence because phrases don’t have a subject and a verb. Kids also learn two types of clauses . Dependent clauses have a subject and a verb and form part of a sentence. Independent clauses have a subject and a verb and create short, complete sentences inside larger sentences.

Seventh graders learn to recognize and use four kinds of sentences . Simple sentences have a single independent clause, with one subject and one verb, e.g., Harold eats pie . Compound sentences have two or more independent clauses, connected with a conjunction, e.g., Harold eats pie because it’s delicious . Complex sentences contain one independent clause and one dependent clause. e.g., Harold eats pie whether it’s hot or cold . Compound complex sentences have at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause. e.g., Jerry eats pie because it’s delicious whether it’s hot or cold .

The common mistake of dangling modifiers happens when modifying words are disconnected from the word they’re meant to modify or the attachment is vague. For example: Alice painted the turtle on the table. Did Alice paint a picture of a turtle on the table surface? Or did she paint the shell of the turtle itself? We’re just not sure.

Seventh graders also start to learn how to use commas correctly. Commas separate adjectives that are equal in value in terms of how they modify the word they describe. If you can reverse the order of the adjectives, then they are equal and you need a comma. For example, Jordana found a red, vintage bag at the thrift store . Since you could also describe it as a vintage, red bag, you need a comma. But you don’t need a comma in this sentence: Mateo wore a yellow rain jacket . Why? Because the reverse order — a rain yellow jacket — makes no sense (unless we’re talking about new species of wasp).

Speak up for the back row

A new focus for writing instruction is that writing should involve a lot of… talking. That’s right. Oral presentations will take center stage for many of your seventh grader’s assignments. The idea is to present their research-backed opinions, arguments, or ideas to their classmates aloud, using formal language, clear pronunciation, and at a volume loud enough for everyone in the class to hear. Kids’ presentations should be well-organized, share main points, and include relevant details and examples. Many presentations will include visual and multimedia displays. Again, it sounds like a lot, but it’s meant as practice to set your child up for real-world, on-the-job success in the future.

Here’s a preview of the presentation skills required in high school.

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Article Writing Topics for class 7

article writing year 7

Could you suggest some topics for article writing for class seven students?

1. Importance of tree plantation 2. Child labour

Some topics I suggest: 1. A memorable day/ important event in your life 2. Your visit to a place of interest 3. Your aim in life/ your hobby 4. Uses and misuses of mobile phone/ social networking sites 6. Importance of science/ internet in our life 7. Importance of education/ hard work or diligence/ moral values 8. Importance of sports and games/ travelling/ saving


1. Increasing pressure of studies among teenagers 2. Live and let live 3. Save water/save earth 4. Benefits of yoga 5.Developing a newspaper habit 6. Machines are boon or bane 7. Fire: Friend or foe

education- birth right Thanksgiving Corruption in India An experience that showed me right path  

I will place some topics which I gave to my students in CBSE schools in Amravati.

  • How much sharing is important in daily life?
  • What does a friendship mean to you?
  • How would you like to surprise your favorite teacher on teacher’s day?

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  • Female infanticide
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  • Effects of Global Warming

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Newspaper article writing year 7 class

Newspaper article writing year 7 class How did

This Revision Bite provides you with ideas about how to proceed if you opt to write a newspaper report within the exam.

Reports usually come in newspapers. They tell readers about occasions which have been happening within their neighborhood, or national or worldwide news. Assignments within the Standard Grade writing paper usually request you to write articles for the local newspaper.

Newspapers are read by individuals who would like details about something which has happened. They need details rapidly so reports need to be readable and also have a snappy presentation style.

Whenever you plan your report, keep in mind that newspaper reports usually supply the solutions towards the questions WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN. WHY, HOW?

See this illustration of a newspaper report

Christopher Brodie is that this morning celebrating his gold medal success within the paralympics 100m sprint.

Yesterday, within the packed stadium in Sydney, Australia, in which the games happen to be happening all week, Chris ran the race of his existence to mix the road within the gold medal position.

For just about any athlete a championship medal may be the ultimate achievement, however for Chris it had been even the culmination of many years of determination and courage.The 20 years old only agreed to be 5 as he needed his right leg amputated underneath the knee. The discomfort brought on by his artificial leg was mot enough to prevent the lively kid from Motherwell playing around living existence fully.

As he became a member of the neighborhood athletics club he never dreamed he would finish up an Olympic champion.

Newspaper article writing year 7 class answers to the questions         what

“The new leg consists of lightweight materials and also the feet section has as near to normalcy feet movement being an artificial leg could possibly get,” stated Ken Brown, among the doctors who labored around the project. Chris supported Dr. Brown’s claim as he stated the new leg permitted for fluid movement along with a significantly less cumbersome running style.

Certainly, the advantages the substitute leg brings to sports men and women around the globe might be seen yesterday in Sydney, when Chris Brodie demonstrated the planet exactly what a effective combination courage and innovation could be.

Are you able to find out the WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY and just how within this news report?

  • Who’s the primary person the storyline is all about?
  • What is happening to him?
  • Where did the big event occur?
  • When made it happen happen?
  • Why made it happen happen?
  • How made it happen occur?

Congratulations should you spotted the primary part of the storyline is Chris Brodie, who won the gold medal in the paralympics in Sydney yesterday the report was written. He lost his right leg growing up and, helped by advances in sports medicine and the determination to achieve success from the odds, has turned into a first class athlete.

Now read the report again. Look carefully for that key options that come with a newspaper report.

  • the headline catches the reader’s attention
  • the very first paragraph provides the primary reason for the storyline and solutions the issue who
  • the next sentences provide solutions towards the questions what, where, when, why and just how
  • the sentences are short and punchy, giving information inside a obvious and concise way
  • you will find references as to the people stated, either using direct speech (utilization of inverted commas signifies what Ken Brown really stated) or reported speech (no inverted commas – the primary points of Chris Brodie’s speech but away from the actual words he stated)
  • utilization of past tense since the report describes a celebration that has already occurred
  • utilization of posts in compliance with newspaper presentation

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Literacy Ideas

How to Write an Article

article writing year 7


Writing is a complex skill. A very complex skill.

Not only do we put students under pressure to master the inconsistent spelling patterns and complex grammar of the English language, but we require them to know how to write for a variety of purposes in both fiction and nonfiction genres.

On top of this, writing is just one aspect of one subject among many.

The best way to help our students to overcome the challenge of writing in any genre is to help them to break things down into their component parts and give them a basic formula to follow.

In this article, we will break article writing down into its components and present a formulaic approach that will provide a basic structure for our students to follow.

Once this structure is mastered, students can, of course, begin to play with things.

But, until then, there is plenty of room within the discipline of the basic structure for students to express themselves in the article form.

Visual Writing Prompts


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With over  FORTY GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS in this  ENGAGING   UNIT, you can complete a  WEEKLY  journalistic / Newspaper reporting task  ALL YEAR LONG  in  2022  as classwork or homework.

These templates take students through a  PROVEN  four-step article writing process on some  AMAZING  images. Students will learn how to.


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The Cambridge Dictionary defines an article as, “a piece of writing on a particular subject in a newspaper or magazine, or on the internet.”

An article’s shape and structure will vary depending on whether it’s intended for publication in a newspaper, magazine, or online.

Each of these media has its own requirements. For example, a magazine feature article may go into great depth on a topic, allowing for long, evocative paragraphs of exposition, while an online blog article may be full of lots of short paragraphs that get to the point without too much fanfare.

Each of these forms makes different demands on the writer, and it’s for this reason that most newspapers, magazines, and big websites provide writers with specific submission guidelines.

So, with such diverse demands placed on article writers, how do we go about teaching the diverse skill required to our students?

Luckily, we can break most types of articles down into some common key features.

Below we’ll take a look at the most important of these, along with an activity to get your students practicing each aspect right away.

Finally, we’ll take a look at a few general tips on article writing.


The headline.

The purpose of the headline is to capture the reader’s attention and let them know what the article is about. All of this in usually no more than 4 or 5 words!

There is an art to good headline writing and all sorts of literary devices (e.g alliteration and metaphor) can be used to create an eye-catching and intriguing headline.

The best way for students to learn how headlines work is to view some historical samples.

Newspaper headlines especially are known for being short and pithy. Here are just a few examples to whet the appetite:

  • Hitler Is Dead
  • Lincoln Shot
  • Men Walk On The Moon
  • Berlin Wall Crumbles

You could encourage students to find some pithy examples of their own. It’s amazing how much information can be condensed into so few words – this is the essence of good headline writing.

Headlines Practice Activity:

Give students opportunities to practice headline writing in isolation from article writing itself. For example, take sample stories from newspapers and magazines and challenge students to write new headlines for them. Set a word limit appropriate to the skills and age of the students. For example, younger, more inexperienced students might write 9-word headlines, while older, more skilled students might thrive with the challenge of a 4-word limit.


Subheadings give the reader more information on what the article is about. For this reason, they’re often a little longer than headlines and use a smaller font, though still larger (or in bold) than the font used in the body of the text.

Subheadings provide a little more of the necessary detail to inform readers what’s going on. If a headline is a jab, the subheading is the cross.

In magazines and online articles especially, there are often subheadings throughout the article. In this context, they let the reader know what each paragraph/section is about.

Subheadings also help the reader’s eye to scan the article and quickly get a sense of the story, for the writer they help immensely to organize the structure of the story.

Practice Activity:

One way to help organize paragraphs in an article is to use parallel structure.

Parallel structure is when we use similar words, phrases, and grammar structures. We might see this being used in a series of subheadings in a ‘How to’ article where the subheadings all start with an imperative such as choose , attach , cut , etc.

Have you noticed how all the sections in this ‘Key Features’ part of this article start simply with the word ‘The’? This is another example of a parallel structure.

Yet another example of parallel structure is when all the subheadings appear in the form of a question.

Whichever type of parallel structure students use, they need to be sure that they all in some way relate to the original title of the article.

To give students a chance to practice writing subheadings using parallel structure, instruct them to write subheadings for a piece of text that doesn’t already have them.


Writing good, solid paragraphs is an art in itself. Luckily, you’ll find comprehensive guidance on this aspect of writing articles elsewhere on this site.

But, for now, let’s take a look at some general considerations for students when writing articles.

The length of the paragraphs will depend on the medium. For example, for online articles paragraphs are generally brief and to the point. Usually no more than a sentence or two and rarely more than five.

This style is often replicated in newspapers and magazines of a more tabloid nature.

Short paragraphs allow for more white space on the page or screen. This is much less daunting for the reader and makes it easier for them to focus their attention on what’s being said – a crucial advantage in these attention-hungry times.

Lots of white space makes articles much more readable on devices with smaller screens such as phones and tablets. Chunking information into brief paragraphs enables online readers to scan articles more quickly too, which is how much of the information on the internet is consumed – I do hope you’re not scanning this!

Conversely, articles that are written more formally, for example, academic articles, can benefit from longer paragraphs which allow for more space to provide supporting evidence for the topic sentence.

Deciding on the length of paragraphs in an article can be done by first thinking about the intended audience, the purpose of the article, as well as the nature of the information to be communicated.

A fun activity to practice paragraphing is to organize your students into groups and provide them with a copy of an article with the original paragraph breaks removed. In their groups, students read the article and decide on where they think the paragraphs should go.

To do this successfully, they’ll need to consider the type of publication they think the article is intended for, the purpose of the article, the language level, and the nature of the information.

When the groups have finished adding in their paragraph breaks they can share and compare their decisions with the other groups before you finally reveal where the breaks were in the original article.

Article Photos and Captions

how to write an article,article writing | article images | How to Write an Article |

Photos and captions aren’t always necessary in articles, but when they are, our students must understand how to make the most of them.

Just like the previous key features on our list, there are specific things students need to know to make the most of this specific aspect of article writing.

  The internet has given us the gift of access to innumerable copyright-free images to accompany our articles, but what criteria should students use when choosing an image?

To choose the perfect accompanying image/s for their article, students need to identify images that match the tone of their article.

Quirky or risque images won’t match the more serious tone of an academic article well, but they might work perfectly for that feature of tattoo artists.

Photos are meant to bring value to an article – they speak a thousand words after all. It’s important then that the image is of a high enough resolution that the detail of those ‘thousand words’ is clearly visible to the reader.

Just as the tone of the photo should match the tone of the article, the tone of the caption should match the tone of the photo.

Captions should be informative and engaging. Often, the first thing a reader will look at in an article is the photos and then the caption. Frequently, they’ll use the information therein to decide whether or not they’ll continue to read.

When writing captions, students must avoid redundancy. They need to add information to that which is already available to the reader by looking at the image.

There’s no point merely describing in words what the reader can clearly see with their own two eyes. Students should describe things that are not immediately obvious, such as date, location, or the name of the event.

One last point, captions should be written in the present tense. By definition, the photo will show something that has happened already. Despite this, students should write as if the action in the image is happening right now.

Remind students that their captions should be brief; they must be careful not to waste words with such a tight format.

For this fun activity, you’ll need some old magazines and newspapers. Cut some of the photos out minus their captions. All the accompanying captions should be cut out and jumbled up. It’s the students’ job to match each image with the correct accompanying caption.

Students can present their decisions and explanations when they’ve finished.

A good extension exercise would be to challenge the students to write a superior caption for each of the images they’ve worked on.


Now your students have the key features of article writing sewn up tightly, let’s take a look at a few quick and easy tips to help them polish up their general article writing skills.

1. Read Widely – Reading widely, all manner of articles, is the best way students can internalize some of the habits of good article writing. Luckily, with the internet, it’s easy to find articles on any topic of interest at the click of a mouse.

2. Choose Interesting Topics – It’s hard to engage the reader when the writer is not themselves engaged. Be sure students choose article topics that pique their own interest (as far as possible!).

3. Research and Outline – Regardless of the type of article the student is writing, some research will be required. The research will help an article take shape in the form of an outline. Without these two crucial stages, articles run the danger of wandering aimlessly and, worse still, of containing inaccurate information and details.

4. Keep Things Simple – All articles are about communicating information in one form or another. The most effective way of doing this is to keep things easily understood by the reader. This is especially true when the topic is complex.

5. Edit and Proofread – This can be said of any type of writing, but it still bears repeating. Students need to ensure they comprehensively proofread and edit their work when they’ve ‘finished’. The importance of this part of the writing process can’t be overstated.

And to Conclude…

how to write an article,article writing | article writing guide | How to Write an Article |

With time and plenty of practice, students will soon internalize the formula as outlined above.

This will enable students to efficiently research, outline, and structure their ideas before writing.

This ability, along with the general tips mentioned, will soon enable your students to produce well-written articles on a wide range of topics to meet the needs of a diverse range of audiences.


how to write an article,article writing | WRITING CHECKLISTS | How to Write an Article |


how to write an article,article writing | YOUTUBE 1280 x 720 10 | How to Write an Article |

The content for this page has been written by Shane Mac Donnchaidh.  A former principal of an international school and English university lecturer with 15 years of teaching and administration experience. Shane’s latest Book, The Complete Guide to Nonfiction Writing , can be found here.  Editing and support for this article have been provided by the literacyideas team.



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Year 7: Persuasive Writing Scheme - Lesson 1

Year 7: Persuasive Writing Scheme - Lesson 1

Subject: English

Age range: 11-14

Resource type: Lesson (complete)

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22 February 2018

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Article Writing Class 7 Worksheet

Article Writing Class 7 Worksheet: Hello Students, welcome to Net Explanations. In this page we have posted Article Writing Class 7 English Grammar Worksheet Extra Questions Answers. For more CBSE Board Class 7 Grammar Worksheet you can check this page.

Article Writing Class 7 English Grammar Worksheet

(Total Marks 30)

Q.1 Write an article on Education should be free   (10 Marks)

Q.2  Write an article on Electric Vehicles   (10 Marks)

Q.3  Write an article on Health is Wealth   (10 Marks)

Answer Sheet:

Education should be free

Education is the right of every individual. Early days only boys were allowed to educate, females did not go out of the house and no rights for education. Also the dalit samaj was suffering in this case. That is why the progress was not upto the mark. As days changed, new skills, techniques, and rules were introduced. Females got the right to get educated also the dalit samaj was allowed to get educated.

No one can deny the importance of education. Education gives knowledge of everything, so it is the most vital tool for every person’s growth and progress. Rights to access education should not be compromised at any cost.

Nowadays, the fees at school, colleges have increased, and an ordinary person faces difficulty raising their child with proper education. Government has given the Arakshan that is fee-concession for the economically backward class and Scheduled caste.

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Education should not be a business or income source. Education should be free of cost as it is the right of every individual.

Electric Vehicles

Looking at the increased pollution in the world, Electric Vehicles must be brought into use daily. Electric Vehicles have already been introduced to society. Normal vehicles use petrol diesel which is getting decreased every year and due to which prices of petrol and diesel are getting hiked, also the gases thrown out from these vehicles are polluting the atmosphere. We need to think about it on a serious note.

Carbon based emission and greenhouse gases are the critical issues. Electric Vehicles would be one helping factor in this, it has various advantages like, it will not only save the cost but also provide pollution free environment, low maintenance, safe to drive, more convenient and these vehicles do not make more noise and are handy to use. These vehicles can be charged as they contain batteries.

Electric Vehicles are the latest automotive trend and all developed and developing nations are encouraging the switch to EV’s (Electric Vehicles) from conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. India aims to achieve EV sales accounting for 30% of private cars, 70% of commercial vehicles and 80% of two and three wheelers by the year 2030. India is promoting the adoption of EV’s in the country offering various incentives to buyers and manufacturers.

Health is Wealth

Being healthy means keeping both our mental and physical state fit. Health being such a valuable thing, it is the prime duty of a person to take care of his health. An unhealthy person loses all that he possesses , grows desperate, his mind too grows sick. The mind can never be healthy if the body is sick.

People should follow a few rules in order to be healthy. One more popular saying is “Early to bed Early to rise makes a man healthy and wise”. People should get up early in the morning. They should brush their teeth daily and take their baths. Morning walks are also good for health. People should drink warm water in the morning.

Rich in terms of wealth would be nothing if health is not good. People do not understand the phrase health is wealth at the young age, they torture their bodies to fulfill the needs, get wealthy. The health effects start bothering you when you grow older. The person who is not having good health spends their money on medicines and doctors. It is a very old proverb that “Health is wealth”. A healthy person can work with efficiency to earn wealth.

Also see:   message writing worksheet class 7 std.

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article writing year 7

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Article Writing For Class 7

Article Writing For Class 7 Format, Topics, Examples, Exercises

Article writing for class 7 with answers.

Articles are written to give information in a wide range of contexts for magazines or newspapers. They are a relatively long and sustained piece of writing. They give information on a variety of themes such as describing an event, person, someone’s life and actions, places, and experiences. They can also be an expression of the writer’s opinions on topics of social interest or arguments for or against a topic and they often offer suggestions.

Looking for an easy way to Learning of new elementary English grammar and composition for class 7 answers, Solutions. You have to learn basic English Grammar topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… In this article, we will review the best English Grammer Topics and compare them against each other.

Also Check: Article Writing For Class 8

Article Writing Topics For Class 7 CBSE Format, Examples Pdf

Articles express the personal opinions of the writer. Input for an article/speech may be in the form of verbal/visual input. The output may be descriptive or argumentative.

Articles express the personal opinion of the writer and present information on a variety of themes.

Article Writing Format Pdf

  • Write the HEADING/TITLE at the top.
  • Write the name of the writer below it.
  • a. Paragraph – 1: Introduction – briefly tell what the Article is about, giving some startling fact or quotation to arouse interest.
  • b. Paragraphs – 2 and 3: Highlight the cause and effect of the problem. Give Examples: to support your views. Compare and contrast.
  • c. Paragraph – 4: Conclusion. Briefly offer suggestions and solutions to improve the situation. Predictions and personal observations may be included.
  • Systematic presentation of ideas is a must.
  • Pay attention to grammatical accuracy and use good vocabulary.
  • Use sentence linkers to ensure continuity – e.g. firstly, finally, moreover, etc.
  • Remove irrelevant information and repetition.
  • Follow the word limit. (150 – 200 words)

Write a good ending: In an article, it’s better to give the readers something to think about, perhaps by asking them another question or giving them a call to action. Often, the best endings link back to the starting point in some way. Use of quotes, slogans, and couplets may be incorporated as per the requirement and relevance.

Article Writing Exercises For Class 7 With Answers

Sample: Cruelty to animals is growing day by day due to human greed. This is not good for the ecosystem. Animals too are a part of our life. You have been asked to write an article ‘Live and Let Live’ in order to create awareness. You are Rohit.

Recommended Reading: Article Writing Topics for Class 7

Article Writing Exercises for Class 7 CBSE

  • Living a healthy lifestyle is the top priority for many people. In light of the above statement, write an article on ‘Keeping a healthy lifestyle’ in not more than 100¬150 words.
  • Women walk long distances to fetch water in certain parts of the country. There is not only a scarcity of water but water in most places is also contaminated. Using the hints given below together with your own ideas, write an article in about 125 words on the scarcity of clean drinking water, suggesting ways to improve the situation.

Scarcity of clean drinking water

  • Women travel long distances in certain areas like Rajasthan and Gujarat to fetch water
  • Contamination of water
  • Linking rivers
  • Awareness of clean drinking water habits
  • Rainwater harvesting/water conservation

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APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Journal Articles

  • Introduction
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Table of Contents

Journal article from library database with doi - one author, journal article from library database with doi - multiple authors, journal article from a website - one author.

Journal Article- No DOI

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

This Microsoft support page contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.

  • APA 7th. ed. Journal Article Reference Checklist

If an item has no author, start the citation with the article title.

When an article has one to twenty authors, all authors' names are cited in the References List entry. When an article has twenty-one or more authors list the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.

Cite author names in the order in which they appear on the source, not in alphabetical order (the first author is usually the person who contributed the most work to the publication).

Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize or use quotation marks for the titles of articles.

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.

If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.

Volume and Issue Numbers

Italicize volume numbers but not issue numbers.

Retrieval Dates

Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, like a free website or a wiki.

Page Numbers

If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14)

Library Database

Do not include the name of a database for works obtained from most academic research databases (e.g. APA PsycInfo, CINAHL) because works in these resources are widely available. Exceptions are Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ERIC, ProQuest Dissertations, and UpToDate.

Include the DOI (formatted as a URL: if it is available. If you do not have a DOI, include a URL if the full text of the article is available online (not as part of a library database). If the full text is from a library database, do not include a DOI, URL, or database name.

In the Body of a Paper

Books, Journals, Reports, Webpages, etc.: When you refer to titles of a “stand-alone work,” as the APA calls them on their APA Style website, such as books, journals, reports, and webpages, you should italicize them. Capitalize words as you would for an article title in a reference, e.g., In the book Crying in H Mart: A memoir , author Michelle Zauner (2021) describes her biracial origin and its impact on her identity.

Article or Chapter: When you refer to the title of a part of a work, such as an article or a chapter, put quotation marks around the title and capitalize it as you would for a journal title in a reference, e.g., In the chapter “Where’s the Wine,” Zauner (2021) describes how she decided to become a musician.

The APA Sample Paper below has more information about formatting your paper.

  • APA 7th ed. Sample Paper

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. number

Smith, K. F. (2022). The public and private dialogue about the American family on television: A second look. Journal of Media Communication, 50 (4), 79-110.

Note: The DOI number is formatted as a URL: 

In-Text Paraphrase:

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Smith, 2000)

In-Text Quote:

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Smith, 2000, p. 80)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. number

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including 20 authors. When a source has 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. Don't include an ampersand (&) between the ellipsis and final author.

Note : For works with three or more authors, the first in-text citation is shortened to include the first author's surname followed by "et al."

Reference List Examples

Two to 20 Authors

Case, T. A., Daristotle, Y. A., Hayek, S. L., Smith, R. R., & Raash, L. I. (2011). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3 (2), 227-238.

21 or more authors

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetma, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 77 (3), 437-471.<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

In-Text Citations

Two Authors/Editors

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

Direct Quote: (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)

Three or more Authors/Editors

(Case et al., 2011)

Direct Quote: (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number if given). URL

Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area.  Electronic Green Journal, 1 (30).

Example: (Flachs, 2010)

Example: (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)

Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, in this case you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. If there are no page or paragraph numbers and no marked section, leave this information out.

Journal Article - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. URL [if article is available online, not as part of a library database]

Full-Text Available Online (Not as Part of a Library Database):

Steinberg, M. P., & Lacoe, J. (2017). What do we know about school discipline reform? Assessing the alternatives to suspensions and expulsions.  Education Next, 17 (1), 44–52.

Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017)

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)

Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017, p. 47)

Full-Text Available in Library Database:

Jungers, W. L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back.  Nature, 463 (2), 433-434.

Example: (Jungers, 2010)

Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)

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Nineteen-year-old acquaintance charged with murder in the death of a Philadelphia journalist

Josh Kruger, left, then the Communications Director, the Office of Homeless Services at City of Philadelphia, at a tent encampment in Philadelphia, on Jan. 6, 2020. An acquaintance has been charged in the death of the Philadelphia journalist who went from sleeping on the street to working for the mayor to writing urgent columns on the city’s most pressing social issues. (Jessica Griffin/The Philadelphia Inquirer via AP)

This image provided by the Philadelphia Police shows Robert Davis, who faces murder, weapons counts and related charges in the death of Josh Kruger, who was shot and killed at his Philadelphia home Oct. 2. (Philadelphia Police Dept. via AP)

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PHILADELPHIA (AP) — An acquaintance has been charged in the death of a Philadelphia journalist who went from sleeping on the street to working for the mayor to writing columns on the city’s most pressing social issues.

Robert Edmond Davis, 19, faces murder, weapons counts and related charges in the death of Josh Kruger, 39, who was shot and killed at his Philadelphia home Oct. 2. A warrant had been issued for Davis four days later and authorities have said they have video of him in the area of Kruger’s home before the shooting.

Davis was arrested at his South Philadelphia home Wednesday night. Authorities have said the motive behind the killing remains unclear but that the pair were in a relationship.

It was not clear Thursday if Davis has retained an attorney. His mother, Damica Davis, told The Philadelphia Inquirer that if her son did kill Kruger, there’s no excuse, noting “it’s tragic what happened, but I feel like my son is a victim in this, as well.”

FILE - A sign is photographed at McMurdo Station, a United States Antarctic research station, on Dec. 4, 2018. An AP investigation in August 2023 uncovered a pattern of women at McMurdo Station who said their claims of sexual harassment or assault were minimized by their employers, often leading to them or others being put in further danger. (National Science Foundation via AP, File)

Kruger was shot seven times at about 1:30 a.m. and collapsed in the street after seeking help, police said. He was pronounced dead at a hospital a short time later.

The slaying was felt deeply at City Hall and among people involved in the many causes he cared about: addiction, homelessness, HIV and LGBTQ+ advocacy, journalism and bicycling, to name a few.

“One of the worst parts of being homeless in urban America is feeling invisible. When people don’t recognize your humanity, you begin to question it yourself,” he wrote in a 2015 column for The Philadelphia Citizen, just three years after he himself slept outside a law firm near Rittenhouse Square.

In more recent columns, he condemned City Council members as cowards for banning supervised injection sites in most parts of the city; dismissed debates about politically correct language over homelessness as beside the point; and, in a final column, dove into the city’s collective grief over the sudden death last month of Temple University’s acting president JoAnne Epps.

Kruger handled social media for the mayor and communications for the Office of Homeless Services from about 2016 to 2021. He left city government to focus on writing projects.

He wrote at various times for Philadelphia Weekly, Philadelphia City Paper, The Philadelphia Inquirer and other publications, earning awards for his poignant and often humorous style.

On his website , he described himself as a “militant bicyclist” and “a proponent of the singular they, the Oxford comma, and pre-Elon Twitter.”

Mourners, including at least one in military uniform and several men wearing skullcaps, surround a coffin wrapped in an Israeli flag.

How Years of Israeli Failures on Hamas Led to a Devastating Attack

Israeli officials completely underestimated the magnitude of the Oct. 7 attacks by Hamas, shattering the country’s once invincible sense of security.

Before the attack by Hamas on Oct. 7, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and top Israeli security officials believed the greatest threats to Israel were Iran and Hezbollah. Credit... Tamir Kalifa for The New York Times

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Ronen Bergman

By Ronen Bergman ,  Mark Mazzetti and Maria Abi-Habib

Ronen Bergman reported from Tel Aviv and the Gaza-Israel border, Mark Mazzetti from Washington and Maria Abi-Habib from London.

  • Published Oct. 29, 2023 Updated Nov. 1, 2023

It was 3 a.m. on Oct. 7, and Ronen Bar, the head of Israel’s domestic security service, still could not determine if what he was seeing was just another Hamas military exercise.

At the headquarters of his service, Shin Bet, officials had spent hours monitoring Hamas activity in the Gaza Strip, which was unusually active for the middle of the night. Israeli intelligence and national security officials, who had convinced themselves that Hamas had no interest in going to war, initially assumed it was just a nighttime exercise.

Their judgment that night might have been different had they been listening to traffic on the hand-held radios of Hamas militants. But Unit 8200, Israel’s signals intelligence agency, had stopped eavesdropping on those networks a year earlier because they saw it as a waste of effort.

As time passed that night, Mr. Bar thought that Hamas might attempt a small-scale assault. He discussed his concerns with Israel’s top generals and ordered the “Tequila” team — a group of elite counterterrorism forces — to deploy to Israel’s southern border.

Until nearly the start of the attack, nobody believed the situation was serious enough to wake up Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, according to three Israeli defense officials.

Within hours, the Tequila troops were embroiled in a battle with thousands of Hamas gunmen who penetrated Israel’s vaunted border fence, sped in trucks and on motorbikes into southern Israel and attacked villages and military bases.

The most powerful military force in the Middle East had not only completely underestimated the magnitude of the attack, it had totally failed in its intelligence-gathering efforts, mostly due to hubris and the mistaken assumption that Hamas was a threat contained.

Despite Israel’s sophisticated technological prowess in espionage, Hamas gunmen had undergone extensive training for the assault, virtually undetected for at least a year. The fighters, who were divided into different units with specific goals, had meticulous information on Israel’s military bases and the layout of kibbutzim.

The country’s once invincible sense of security was shattered.

More than 1,400 people were killed, including many women, children and old people who were murdered systematically and brutally. Hundreds are held hostage or are still missing. Israel has responded with a ferocious bombardment campaign on Gaza, killing more than 8,000 Palestinians and wounding thousands more, according to the Hamas-run health ministry. The Israeli military on Sunday signaled a heavier assault on Gaza, saying it had expanded its ground incursion overnight.

Among a group of children in an open urban space, one child holds a smaller one while looking up. The others are also looking up or running.

Israeli officials have promised a full investigation into what went wrong.

Even before that inquiry, it is clear the attacks were possible because of a cascade of failures over recent years — not hours, days or weeks. A New York Times examination, based on dozens of interviews with Israeli, Arab, European and American officials, as well as a review of Israeli government documents and evidence collected since the Oct. 7 raid, shows that:

Israeli security officials spent months trying to warn Mr. Netanyahu that the political turmoil caused by his domestic policies was weakening the country’s security and emboldening Israel’s enemies. The prime minister continued to push those policies. On one day in July he even refused to meet a senior general who came to deliver a threat warning based on classified intelligence, according to Israeli officials.

Israeli officials misjudged the threat posed by Hamas for years, and more critically in the run-up to the attack. The official assessment of Israeli military intelligence and the National Security Council since May 2021 was that Hamas had no interest in launching an attack from Gaza that might invite a devastating response from Israel, according to five people familiar with the assessments who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss sensitive details. Instead, Israeli intelligence assessed that Hamas was trying to foment violence against Israelis in the West Bank, which is controlled by its rival, the Palestinian Authority.

The belief by Mr. Netanyahu and top Israeli security officials that Iran and Hezbollah, its most powerful proxy force, presented the gravest threat to Israel diverted attention and resources away from countering Hamas. In late September, senior Israeli officials told The Times they were concerned that Israel might be attacked in the coming weeks or months on several fronts by Iran-backed militia groups, but made no mention of Hamas initiating a war with Israel from the Gaza Strip.

American spy agencies in recent years had largely stopped collecting intelligence on Hamas and its plans, believing the group was a regional threat that Israel was managing.

Overall, arrogance among Israeli political and security officials convinced them that the country’s military and technological superiority to Hamas would keep the terrorist group in check.

“They were able to trick our collection, our analysis, our conclusions and our strategic understanding,” Eyal Hulata, Israel’s national security adviser from 2021 until early this year, said during a discussion last week in Washington sponsored by the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, a think tank.

“I don’t think there was anyone who was involved with affairs with Gaza that shouldn’t ask themselves how and where they were also part of this massive failure,” he added.

Many senior officials have accepted responsibility, but Mr. Netanyahu has not. At 1 a.m. Sunday in Israel, after his office was asked for comment on this article, he posted a message on X, formerly Twitter, that repeated remarks he made to The New York Times and blame d the military and intelligence services for failing to provide him with any warning on Hamas.

“Under no circumstances and at no stage was Prime Minister Netanyahu warned of war intentions on the part of Hamas,” the post read in Hebrew. “On the contrary, the assessment of the entire security echelon, including the head of military intelligence and the head of Shin Bet, was that Hamas was deterred and was seeking an arrangement.”

In the resulting furor, Benny Gantz, a member of his war cabinet, publicly rebuked Mr. Netanyahu, saying that “leadership means displaying responsibility,” and urged the prime minister to retract the post. It was later deleted, and Mr. Netanyahu apologized in a new one.

On Sunday, Shin Bet promised a thorough investigation after the war. The I.D.F. declined to comment.

The last time Israelis’ collective belief in their country’s security was similarly devastated was 50 years earlier, at the start of the Yom Kippur War, when Israel was caught off guard by an assault by Egyptian and Syrian forces. In an echo of that attack, Hamas succeeded because Israeli officials made many of the same mistakes that were made in 1973.

The Yom Kippur War was “a classic example of how intelligence fails when the policy and intelligence communities build a feedback loop that reinforces their prejudices and blinds them to changes in the threat environment,” Bruce Riedel, a former top Middle East analyst at the Central Intelligence Agency, wrote in a 2017 research paper about the 1973 war.

In an interview this month, Mr. Riedel said that Mr. Netanyahu was reaping the consequences of focusing on Iran as the existential threat to Israel while largely ignoring an enemy in his backyard.

“Bibi’s message to Israelis has been that the real threat is Iran,” he said, using Mr. Netanyahu’s nickname. “That with the occupation of the West Bank and the siege of Gaza, the Palestinian issue is no longer a threat to Israel’s security. All of those assumptions were shattered on Oct. 7.”

Ignored Warnings

On July 24, two senior Israeli generals arrived at the Knesset, Israel’s parliament, to deliver urgent warnings to Israeli lawmakers, according to three Israeli defense officials.

The Knesset was scheduled that day to give final approval to one of Mr. Netanyahu’s attempts to curb the power of Israel’s judiciary — an effort that had convulsed Israeli society, ignited massive street protests and led to large-scale resignations from the military reserves.

A growing portion of the Air Force’s operational pilots was threatening to refuse to report to duty if the legislation passed.

In the briefcase of one of the generals, Aharon Haliva, the head of the Israeli Defense Forces’ Military Intelligence Directorate, were highly classified documents detailing a judgment by intelligence officials that the political turmoil was emboldening Israel’s enemies. One document stated that the leaders of what Israeli officials call the “axis of resistance” — Iran, Syria, Hamas, Hezbollah and Palestinian Islamic Jihad — believed this was a moment of Israeli weakness and a time to strike.

Hezbollah’s leader, Hassan Nasrallah, according to one of the documents, said that it was necessary to prepare for a major war.

General Haliva was ready to tell the coalition leaders that the political turmoil was creating an opportunity for Israel’s enemies to attack, particularly if there were more resignations in the military. Only two members of the Knesset came to hear his briefing.

The legislation passed overwhelmingly.

Separately, Gen. Herzi Halevi, the military’s chief of staff, tried to deliver the same warnings to Mr. Netanyahu. The prime minister refused to meet him, the officials said. Mr. Netanyahu’s office did not respond to a request for comment about this meeting.

The generals’ warnings were in large part based on a series of provocations on Israel’s northern border.

In February and March, Hezbollah had sent explosive-laden drones toward Israeli gas rigs. In March, a militant climbed over the border fence from Lebanon into Israel, carrying several powerful bombs, weapons, phones and an electric bike on which he traveled to a major northern intersection. He then used a powerful charge, apparently trying to blow up a bus.

On May 21, Hezbollah staged for apparently the first time war games at one of its training sites in Aaramta in south Lebanon. Hezbollah launched rockets and flew drones that dropped explosives on a simulated Israeli town.

Israeli officials believed that Hezbollah was leading the planning for a coordinated attack against Israel, but not one that would prompt an all-out war.

The officials’ concerns grew through August and September, and General Halevi went public with his concerns.

“We must be more prepared than ever for a multi-arena and extensive military conflict,” he said at a military ceremony on Sept. 11 , just weeks before the attack.

Mr. Netanyahu’s allies went on Israeli television and condemned General Halevi for sowing panic.

In a series of meetings, Shin Bet gave similar warnings to senior Israeli officials as General Halevi. Eventually, Mr. Bar also went public.

“From the investigations we are doing we can say today that the political instability and the growing division are a shot of encouragement to the countries of the axis of evil, the terrorist organizations and the individual threats,” Mr. Bar said in a speech .

Mr. Netanyahu’s government also ignored warnings from Israel’s neighbors. As the custodian of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem, Jordan has traditionally been an important mediator between Palestinians and Israel’s government on the Aqsa Mosque compound, the third most holy site in Islam. The mosque compound has seen repeated raids by Israeli forces over the years, and Hamas has said that it launched this month’s attack in part as retaliation for those acts.

But Jordan found that when Mr. Netanyahu formed a government late last year, the most far right in recent history, it was less receptive to their warnings that the incidents at the Aqsa Mosque compound was stirring up sentiment inside Palestinian territories that could boil over into violence, according to two Arab officials with knowledge of the relationship.

The Wrong Focus

While security and intelligence officials were right about a coming attack, their intense focus on Hezbollah and Iran had a tragic effect: Far less attention was paid to the threats from Gaza. Since Israel’s withdrawal in 2005 and Hamas’s evolution from a purely guerrilla organization into the governing power of Gaza in 2007, Hamas had only periodic skirmishes with the Israeli military.

Under four different prime ministers, Israel repeatedly decided that reoccupying Gaza and crushing Hamas would cost too many lives and do too much damage to Israel’s international reputation.

Israel knew that Hamas, which Iran supports with funding, training and weapons, was growing stronger over time. But officials thought they could contain Hamas with an extensive network of human spies, sophisticated surveillance tools that would deliver early warnings of an attack and border fortifications to deter a Hamas ground assault. They also relied on the Iron Dome air defense system for intercepting rockets and missiles launched from Gaza.

The strategy, confirmed by multiple Israeli officials, bore some fruit. Over the years, Israel’s investment in penetrating Hamas’s inner circle in Gaza allowed Israel to uncover the group’s attack plans and occasionally led to assassinations of Hamas leaders.

Strengthening Hamas

Publicly, Mr. Netanyahu used blunt rhetoric about Hamas. His election slogan in 2008 was “Strong Against Hamas,” and in one campaign video at the time he pledged: “We will not stop the I.D.F. We will finish the job. We will topple the terror regime of Hamas.”

Over time, however, he came to see Hamas as a way to balance power against the Palestinian Authority, which has administrative control over the West Bank and has long sought a peace agreement in Israel in exchange for a Palestinian state.

Mr. Netanyahu told aides over the years that a feeble Palestinian Authority lowered the pressure on him to make concessions to Palestinians in negotiations, according to several former Israeli officials and people close to Mr. Netanyahu. An official in Mr. Netanyahu’s office, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, denied this had been the prime minister’s policy.

But there is no question that Israeli officials viewed Hamas as a regional threat, not a global terrorist organization like Hezbollah or the Islamic State. This view was shared in Washington, and American intelligence agencies dedicated few resources to collecting information on the group.

Some parts of the American government even believed that Hamas operatives could be recruited as sources of information about terrorist groups considered more urgent priorities in Washington.

Jonathan Schanzer, a former Treasury Department official and now the senior vice president for research at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, recalled a meeting he had in 2015 with American intelligence and law enforcement officials about suspected Hamas operatives inside the United States.

During the meeting, he recalled, the officials told him they were trying to turn the Hamas operatives into “assets” in the fight against the Islamic State.

The Invincibility of the Wall

Israeli officials firmly believed that “The Barrier” — a nearly 40-mile-long reinforced concrete wall above and below ground, completed in 2021 — would hermetically seal off Gaza. There was also a surveillance system at the border based almost exclusively on cameras, sensors and remote-operated “sight-shooter” systems, four senior Israeli military officers told The Times.

Senior Israeli military officials believed that the combination of remote surveillance and machine-gun systems with the formidable wall would make it almost impossible to infiltrate Israel, and thus reduce the need for a large number of soldiers to be stationed at the bases.

But Hamas’s attack exposed the fragility of that technology. The group used explosive drones that damaged the cellular antennas and the remote firing systems that protected the fence between Gaza and Israel.

To get around Israel’s powerful surveillance technology, Hamas fighters also appeared to enforce strict discipline among the group’s ranks to not discuss its activities on mobile phones. This allowed them to pull off the attack without detection, one European official said.

The group most likely divided its fighters into smaller cells, each probably only trained for a specific objective. That way, the rank and file did not understand the scale of the attacks they were preparing for and could not give away the operation if caught, a European official said, based on his analysis of how the attack unfolded and from the videos the group disseminated from the operation.

Hamas may have learned such operational discipline from Hezbollah, which has long confused Israeli forces on the battlefield by dividing its fighters into smaller units of friends or relatives, according to Lebanese officials with ties to the group. If the fighters speak openly on cellphones to coordinate military operations, Lebanese officials with ties to the group said, part of their code is to speak in childhood memories — for example, asking to meet up in a field where they once played together.

Hamas claimed that 35 drones took part in the opening strike, including the Zawari, an explosive-laden drone.

“We started receiving messages that there was a raid on every reporting line,” testified one soldier, who was at the Gaza Division base on the day of the invasion, in a conversation with the “H amakom Hachi Ham Bagehinom” (“The Hottest Place in Hell”) website.

“On every reporting line, swarms of terrorists were coming in,” the soldier added. “The forces did not have time to come and stop it. There were swarms of terrorists, something psychotic, and we were simply told that our only choice was to take our feet and flee for our lives.”

In a conversation with military investigators two weeks after the attack, soldiers who survived the assault testified that the Hamas training was so precise that they damaged a row of cameras and communication systems so that “all our screens turned off in almost the exact same second.” The result of all this was a near total blindness on the morning of the attack.

After the fighting had stopped, Israeli soldiers found hand-held radios on the dead bodies of some of the Hamas militants — the same radios that Israeli intelligence officials had decided a year ago were no longer worth monitoring.

Farnaz Fassihi contributed reporting from New York, and Eileen Sullivan from Washington.

Ronen Bergman is a staff writer for The New York Times Magazine, based in Tel Aviv. His latest book is “Rise and Kill First: The Secret History of Israel’s Targeted Assassinations,” published by Random House. More about Ronen Bergman

Mark Mazzetti is a Washington investigative correspondent, and a two-time Pulitzer Prize winner. He is the author of "The Way of the Knife: the C.I.A, a Secret Army, and a War at the Ends of the Earth."  More about Mark Mazzetti

Maria Abi-Habib is an investigative correspondent based in Mexico City, covering Latin America. She previously reported from Afghanistan, across the Middle East and in India, where she covered South Asia. More about Maria Abi-Habib

Our Coverage of the Israel-Hamas War

A New Phase in the Conflict: Days after Israeli troops poured into Gaza, Israeli military officials say they have made steady gains against Hamas. But the ground operation is entering a perilous stage , with Israelis soldiers advancing in an urban landscape  that is honeycombed with tunnels and home to many Palestinians.

Departures From Gaza: After three weeks of intensive diplomatic negotiations, the first of thousands  of foreign-passport holders , aid workers and critically wounded patients in Gaza were allowed to begin evacuating to Egypt .

In the West Bank: As the conflict continues, attacks by Israeli forces and settlers on Palestinians in the territory are surging . Experienced observers believe the spike in violence is part of a broader campaign to scare Palestinians off their land .

Jabaliya Airstrikes: As the densely populated neighborhood  continued to be pummeled  by Israeli strikes, a doctor at a hospital where many of the casualties  from the strikes were being taken described nightmarish scenes on the ground .

Hostages: Israel has said there are two main goals in the war: Destroy Hamas and free the hostages  held in Gaza. But are those goals compatible ?

The Conflict’s   Global  Reach

Social Media: Amid angry outpourings and even personal attacks, people are increasingly facing pressure to post about the Israel-Hamas war . The social networks, meanwhile, are being accused  of spreading misinformation  and hate speech.

A Worldwide War of Words: Iran, Russia and, to a lesser degree, China are using state and social media  to support Hamas and undercut Israel, while denigrating Israel’s principal ally, the United States.

Dagestan Riot:  A New York Times analysis of Telegram posts shows how a false rumor about the resettlement of Israelis in Dagestan that led to an antisemitic riot at an airport was shared online for longer and more widely than previously reported .

Two-State Solution: The idea of Israelis and Palestinians living side-by-side in their own sovereign countries is getting a new hearing  in foreign-policy circles , with diplomats and analysts saying that the war may breathe new life into it.

Iran: For more than four decades, Iran’s rulers have pledged to destroy Israel. Now Tehran faces a dilemma , weighing how it and its proxy militias should respond to the invasion of Gaza at the risk of igniting a broader regional war.


Toll of Israel-Palestine crisis on children ‘beyond devastating’

A five-year-old boy holds up his cat  amidst the wreckage of his home in Gaza.

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Gaza has become a “graveyard” for children with thousands now killed under Israeli bombardment, while more than a million face dire shortages of essentials and a lifetime of trauma ahead, UN humanitarians said on Tuesday.

UN relief chief Martin Griffiths, who has been visiting Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory, spoke to families in Gaza over the phone from east Jerusalem on Tuesday and said that what they have endured since the start of Israel’s retaliation for Hamas’ deadly 7 October attacks is “beyond devastating”.

“ When an eight-year-old tells you that she doesn’t want to die, it’s hard not to feel helpless ,” he wrote on social platform X.

Hostages’ families ‘living in agony’

On Monday Mr. Griffiths met in Jerusalem with family members of some of the more than 230 hostages held in Gaza since 7 October. Reportedly about 30 of them kidnapped by Hamas terrorists are children.

The UN relief chief said that for the past weeks these families “have been living in agony, not knowing if their loved ones are dead or alive”, and that he couldn’t “begin to imagine” what they are going through.

The UN has repeatedly called for the immediate and unconditional release of the hostages.

‘Unbearable’ thought of children buried under rubble

Reportedly more than 3,450 children have been killed in Gaza according to the Hamas-run Ministry of Health, UN Children’s Fund ( UNICEF ) spokesperson James Elder told reporters in Geneva on Tuesday.

Another 1,000 children have been reported missing and may be trapped or dead under the rubble, awaiting rescue or recovery, UN humanitarian affairs coordination office OCHA said.

OCHA spokesperson Jens Laerke said that it is “almost unbearable to think about children buried under rubble with very little possibility for getting them out”.

An 11-year-old boy stands at the entrance to his home in Gaza City.

Decades of trauma ahead

“Threats go beyond the bombs and mortars”, UNICEF’s James Elder stressed. Infant deaths due to dehydration are “a growing threat” in the enclave as Gaza’s water production is at five per cent of the required volume due to non-functioning desalination plants which are either damaged or lack fuel.

When the fighting finally stops, the costs to children “will be borne out for decades to come”, he said, due to the horrific trauma faced by survivors.

I do not have the luxury to think about my children’s mental health – I just need to keep them alive

Mr. Elder cited the example of a UNICEF staffer’s four-year-old daughter in Gaza who has started self-harming because of the daily stress and fear, while her mother told colleagues, “I do not have the luxury to think about my children’s mental health – I just need to keep them alive”.

Humanitarian ceasefire essential

Mr. Elder reiterated calls, “on behalf of the 1.1 million children in Gaza living through this nightmare”, for an immediate humanitarian ceasefire and opening of all access points for sustained entry of humanitarian aid.

“If we had a ceasefire for 72 hours, this would mean a thousand children would be safe again for this time,” he said.

Aid ‘a fraction of what is needed’

On Monday, a total of 26 trucks carrying humanitarian supplies entered Gaza through the Rafah crossing with Egypt, OCHA’s Jens Laerke said, with the hope that more trucks will enter on Tuesday.

This brings the total number of trucks allowed through the crossing from 21 to 30 October to 143.

OCHA stressed that while the increase in the volume of aid entering Gaza in the past two days is welcome, “current amounts are a fraction of what is needed to prevent further deterioration in the already-dire humanitarian situation, including civil unrest”. Before the escalation close to 500 trucks, both commercial and humanitarian, would enter the enclave every working day, including some 50 trucks of fuel.

Briefing the UN Security Council on Monday, Mr. Griffiths spoke about the urgency of replenishing fuel supplies, “vital for powering most essential services, including hospitals and water desalination plants, and to transport humanitarian relief inside Gaza”.

Attacks on healthcare

The public health catastrophe in the enclave is being compounded by attacks on health. UN health agency ( WHO ) said that it has documented 82 in Gaza so far.

OCHA warned that the vicinities of two hospitals in Gaza city and northern Gaza were reportedly bombarded for the second consecutive day on Monday, prompting Mr. Griffiths to share his concern with the Security Council over “allegations of military installations in the close vicinity of hospitals and the request by Israeli authorities for hospitals, including Al Quds and Shifa, to be evacuated”.

A young boy plays in the street amidst the wreckage of homes destroyed by airstrikes in Al Shati Refugee Camp in the Gaza Strip.

Protect medical facilities ‘at all times’

In response to a question over these allegations, UN human rights office ( OHCHR ) spokesperson Liz Throssell reiterated on Tuesday that hospitals are protected buildings under international humanitarian law.

If proven, the use of human shields in hospitals would amount to a war crime, she said. However, “regardless of the actions of one side, for example using hospitals for military purposes, the other side must comply with international humanitarian rules on the conduct of hostilities” which extend special protection to medical units at all times, she insisted.

Where medical units lose their special protection as a result of being used outside their humanitarian function to commit acts harmful to the enemy, and where a warning for the harmful use to cease has gone unheeded, “still, any attack must comply with the principles of precautions in attack and proportionality”, Ms. Throssell explained.


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