• Integrative Review

What is an Integrative Review?

An   integrative review  provides a broader summary of the literature and includes findings from a range of research designs. It gathers and synthesizes  both empirical and theoretical evidence  relevant to a clearly defined problem. It may include case studies, observational studies, and meta-analyses, but may also include practice applications, theory, and guidelines. It is the only approach that allows for the combination of diverse methodologies. Its aim is to develop a holistic understanding   of the topic, present the state of the science and contribute to theory development.  The integrative review has been advocated as important for evidence-based practice initiatives in nursing  (Hopia et al., 2016).

Integrative reviews are popular in nursing because they use diverse data sources to investigate the complexity of nursing practice. An integrative review addresses the current state of the evidence, the quality of the available evidence, identifies gaps in the literature and suggests future directions for research and practice The clinical question(s)   of an integrative review   is broader  than that of a systematic review, yet should be clearly stated and well-defined. As with a systematic review, an integrative review requires a transparent and rigorous systematic approach  (Remington & Toronto, 2020).

Integrative reviews synthesize research data from various research designs to reach comprehensive and reliable conclusions. An integrative review helps to develop a comprehensive understanding of the topic by synthesizing  all forms of available evidence (Dhollande et al., 2021). They allow healthcare professionals to use all available evidence from both  qualitative and quantitative research to provide a more holistic understanding of the topic, which can then be applied to clinical practice. Sampling for an integrative review may include experimental and nonexperimental (empirical) and theoretical literature (Remington & Toronto, 2020). 

From:  Kutcher, & LeBaron, V. T. (2022). A simple guide for completing an integrative review using an example article.  Journal of Professional Nursing,  40 , 13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2022.02.004

See Table 2: Steps of the integrative review (IR) process with key points and lessons learned

Steps of the Integrative Review Process

1: Select a Topic:  Formulate a purpose and/or review question(s).   An integrative review can be used to answer research questions related to nursing and other disciplines.   Clearly identify a problem from a gap in the literature. Perform a quick search for other literature reviews related to the topic of interest to avoid duplication. Integrative review questions should be  broad in scope, but narrow enough that the search is manageable.  It should be  well-defined,  and  clearly stated . Provide background on the topic and justification for the integrative review. Do a quick literature search to determine if any recent integrative or other types of reviews on or related to the topic have been performed.

Quality Appraisal Tools for Integrative Reviews

Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Checklists  Appraisal checklists designed for use with Systematic Reviews, Randomized Controlled Trials, Cohort Studies,  Case Control  Studies, Economic Evaluations, Diagnostic Studies, Qualitative studies and Clinical Prediction Rule.

Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT)  The MMAT is a critical appraisal tool that is designed for the appraisal stage of systematic mixed studies reviews, i.e., reviews that include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. It permits to appraise the methodological quality of five categories to studies: qualitative research, randomized controlled trials, non-randomized studies, quantitative descriptive studies, and mixed methods studies. (Hong et al., 2018).

Hong, Q. N., Fàbregues, S., Bartlett, G., Boardman, F., Cargo, M., Dagenais, P., Gagnon, M.-P., Griffiths, F., Nicolau, B., O’Cathain, A., Rousseau, M.-C., Vedel, I., & Pluye, P. (2018). The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) version 2018 for information professionals and researchers.  Education for Information, 34 (4), 285–291. https://doi.org/10.3233/EFI-180221

More Information

For more information on integrative reviews:

Dhollande, S., Taylor, A., Meyer, S., & Scott, M. (2021). Conducting integrative reviews: A guide for novice nursing researchers.  Journal of Research in Nursing, 26( 5), 427–438. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987121997907

Evans, D. (2007). Integrative reviews: Overview of methods. In C. Webb, & B. Roe (Eds.),  Reviewing research evidence for nursing practice: Systematic reviews  (pp. 135 - 148). John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

Hopia, Latvala, E., & Liimatainen, L. (2016). Reviewing the methodology of an integrative review.  Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences,  30 (4), 662–669. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12327

Kutcher, & LeBaron, V. T. (2022). A simple guide for completing an integrative review using an example article.  Journal of Professional Nursing,  40 , 13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2022.02.004

Oermann, M. H., & Knafl, K. A. (2021). Strategies for completing a successful integrative review.  Nurse Author & Editor (Blackwell) ,  31 (3/4), 65–68. https://doi-org.libproxy.adelphi.edu/10.1111/nae2.30

Toronto, C. E., & Remington, R. (Eds.). (2020).  A step-by-step guide to conducting an integrative review . Springer.

Whittemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: updated methodology.  Journal of Advanced Nursing ,  52 (5), 546–553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x

Whittemore, R. (2007). Rigour in integrative reviews. In C. Webb, & B. Roe (Eds.),  Reviewing research evidence for nursing practice: Systematic reviews  (pp. 149 - 156). John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

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  • Types of Questions
  • Key Features and Limitations
  • Is a Systematic Review Right for Your Research?
  • Scoping Review
  • Rapid Review
  • Meta-Analysis/Meta-Synthesis
  • Reducing Bias
  • Guidelines for Student Researchers
  • Register Your Protocol
  • Handbooks & Manuals
  • Reporting Guidelines
  • PRESS 2015 Guidelines
  • Search Strategies
  • Selected Databases
  • Grey Literature
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  • Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
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  • Broad Functionality Programs & Tools
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  • CItation Screening
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  • Books on Systematic Reviews
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  • Systematic Review Journals
  • More Resources
  • Evidence-Based Practice Research in Nursing
  • Citation Management Programs
  • Last Updated: Jan 26, 2024 3:26 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.adelphi.edu/Systematic_Reviews

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  • © 2020

A Step-by-Step Guide to Conducting an Integrative Review

  • Coleen E. Toronto 0 ,
  • Ruth Remington 1

School of Nursing, Curry College, Milton, USA

You can also search for this editor in PubMed   Google Scholar

Department of Nursing, Framingham State University, Framingham, USA

Defines the key features that distinguish the integrative review from other types of literature reviews

Guides the reader through the complete process of conducting the integrative review

Promotes valid and reliable integrative reviews that support evidence-base nursing practice

Offers clear, and practical step-by-step instructions

Makes connections to published nursing research

Appropriate for any nurse author of an integrative review, student, clinician, academic or researcher

29k Accesses

133 Citations

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  • Table of contents

About this book

Editors and affiliations, about the editors, bibliographic information.

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Table of contents (7 chapters)

Front matter, overview of the integrative review.

Coleen E. Toronto

Formulating Review Question

  • Karen Devereaux Melillo

Searching Systematically and Comprehensively

  • Jane Lawless, Margaret J. Foster

Quality Appraisal

Ruth Remington

Analysis and Synthesis

  • Patricia A. Dwyer

Discussion and Conclusion

  • Coleen E. Toronto, Ruth Remington

Dissemination of the Integrative Review

  • Kristen A. Sethares
  • Integrative review process
  • Literature reviews
  • Systematic literature search
  • Nursing Research
  • Integrative Review Method

Coleen Toronto , PhD, RN, CNE, is an Associate Professor in the School of Nursing at Curry College, USA. Dr. Toronto is a BSN graduate of Northeastern University, received her master’s in nursing education from Framingham State University, and her PhD in nursing from University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. Dr. Toronto is a Certified Nurse Educator (CNE). Her research interests include integrative review methodology, nursing education, health literacy and Delphi methodology.

Book Title : A Step-by-Step Guide to Conducting an Integrative Review

Editors : Coleen E. Toronto, Ruth Remington

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37504-1

Publisher : Springer Cham

eBook Packages : Medicine , Medicine (R0)

Copyright Information : Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Softcover ISBN : 978-3-030-37503-4 Published: 18 February 2020

eBook ISBN : 978-3-030-37504-1 Published: 17 February 2020

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XII, 106

Number of Illustrations : 3 b/w illustrations, 8 illustrations in colour

Topics : Nursing Research , Nursing Education , Research Skills

Policies and ethics

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  • Literature Reviews in the Health Sciences
  • Review Comparison Chart
  • Decision Tools
  • Systematic Review
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Scoping Review
  • Mapping Review
  • Integrative Review
  • Rapid Review
  • Realist Review
  • Umbrella Review
  • Review of Complex Interventions
  • Diagnostic Test Accuracy Review
  • Narrative Literature Reviews
  • Standards and Guidelines

Navigate the links below to jump to a specific section of the page:

When is an Integrative Review methodology appropriate?

Outline of stages, methods and guidance, examples of integrative reviews, supplementary resources.

"An integrative review is a specific review method that summarizes past empirical or theoretical literature to provide a greater comprehensive understanding of a particular phenomenon or healthcare problem" (Broome, 1993). Thus, integrative reviews have the potential to build upon nursing science, informing research, practice, and policy initiatives.

An integrative review method is an approach that allows for the inclusion of diverse methodologies (i.e. experimental and non-experimental research) and have the potential to play a greater role in evidence-based practice for nursing ( Whittemore & Knafl, 2005 ).

Characteristics:

  • An integrative review is best designed for nursing research
  • The problem must be clearly defined
  • define concepts
  • review theories
  • review evidence/point out gaps in the literature
  • analyze methodological issues

When to Use It: According to Toronto & Remington (2020) , Whittmore & Knafl (2005) , and Broome (2000)  an integrative review approach is best suited for:

  • A research scope focused more broadly at a phenomenon of interest rather than a systematic review and allows for diverse research, which may contain theoretical and methodological literature to address the aim of the review.
  • Supporting a wide range of inquiry, such as defining concepts, reviewing theories, or analyzing methodological issues.
  • Examining the complexity of nursing practice more broadly by using diverse data sources.

The following stages of conducting an integrative review are derived from  Whittemore & Knafl (2005) .

Timeframe:  12+ months

*Varies beyond the type of review. Depends on many factors such as but not limited to: resources available, the quantity and quality of the literature, and the expertise or experience of reviewers" ( Grant & Booth, 2009 ).

Question:  Formulation of a problem, may be related to practice and/or policy especially in nursing.

Is your review question a complex intervention?  Learn more about  Reviews of Complex Interventions .

Sources and searches:  Comprehensive but with a specific focus, integrated methodologies-experimental and non-experimental research. Purposive Sampling may be employed. Database searching is recommended along with grey literature searching. "Other recommended approaches to searching the literature include ancestry searching, journal hand searching, networking, and searching research registries." Search is transparent and reproducible.

Selection:  Selected as related to problem identified or question, Inclusion of empirical and theoretical reports and diverse study methodologies. 

Appraisal:  "How quality is evaluated in an integrative review will vary depending on the sampling frame." Limited/varying methods of critical appraisal and can be complex. "In a review that encompasses theoretical and empirical sources, two quality criteria instruments could be developed for each type of source and scores could be used as criteria for inclusion/exclusion or as a variable in the data analysis stage."

Synthesis:  Narrative synthesis for qualitative and quantitative studies. Data extracted for study characteristics and concept. Synthesis may be in the form of a table, diagram or model to portray results. "Extracted data are compared item by item so that similar data are categorized and grouped together."  

The method consists of:

  • data reduction
  • data display
  • data comparison
  • conclusion drawing,
  • verification 

The following resources are considered to be the best guidance for conduct in the field of integrative reviews.

Methods & Guidance

  • Hopia, H., Latvala, E., & Liimatainen, L. (2016). Reviewing the methodology of an integrative review .  Scandinavian journal of caring sciences ,  30 (4), 662–669. doi: 10.1111/scs.12327
  • Russell C. L. (2005). An overview of the integrative research review .  Progress in transplantation ,  15 (1), 8–13. doi: 10.1177/152692480501500102
  • Whittemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: updated methodology .  Journal of advanced nursing ,  52 (5), 546–553. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x

Reporting Guideline

There is currently no reporting guideline for integrative reviews.

  • Collins, J. W., Zoucha, R., Lockhart, J. S., & Mixer, S. J. (2018). Cultural aspects of end-of-life care planning for African Americans: an integrative review of literature .  Journal of transcultural nursing ,  29 (6), 578–590. doi: 10.1177/1043659617753042
  • Cowdell, F., Booth, A., & Appleby, B. (2017). Knowledge mobilization in bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries: a systematic integrative review protocol .  Journal of advanced nursing ,  73 (11), 2757–2764. doi: 10.1111/jan.13378
  • Frisch, N. C., & Rabinowitsch, D. (2019). What's in a definition? Holistic nursing, integrative health care, and integrative nursing: report of an integrated literature review .  Journal of holistic nursing ,  37 (3), 260–272. doi: 10.1177/0898010119860685
  • Kim, J., Kim, Y. L., Jang, H., Cho, M., Lee, M., Kim, J., & Lee, H. (2020). Living labs for health: an integrative literature review .  European journal of public health ,  30 (1), 55–63. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckz105
  • Luckett, T., Sellars, M., Tieman, J., Pollock, C. A., Silvester, W., Butow, P. N., Detering, K. M., Brennan, F., & Clayton, J. M. (2014). Advance care planning for adults with CKD: a systematic integrative review .  American journal of kidney diseases ,  63 (5), 761–770. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.12.007
  • Shinners, L., Aggar, C., Grace, S., & Smith, S. (2020). Exploring healthcare professionals' understanding and experiences of artificial intelligence technology use in the delivery of healthcare: an integrative review .  Health informatics journal ,  26 (2), 1225–1236. doi: 10.1177/1460458219874641
  • Silva, D., Tavares, N. V., Alexandre, A. R., Freitas, D. A., Brêda, M. Z., Albuquerque, M. C., & Melo, V. L. (2015). Depressão e risco de suicídio entre profissionais de Enfermagem: revisão integrative [Depression and suicide risk among nursing professionals: an integrative review] .  Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P ,  49 (6), 1027–1036. doi: 10.1590/S0080-623420150000600020
  • Stormacq, C., Van den Broucke, S., & Wosinski, J. (2019). Does health literacy mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and health disparities? integrative review .  Health promotion international ,  34 (5), e1–e17. doi: 10.1093/heapro/day062
  • Broome M.E. (1993). Integrative literature reviews for the development of concepts. In Rodgers, B. L., & Knafl, K. A. (Eds.),  Concept development in nursing  (2nd ed., pp. 231-250). W.B. Saunders Company.
  • da Silva, R. N., Brandão, M., & Ferreira, M. A. (2020). Integrative Review as a Method to Generate or to Test Nursing Theory .  Nursing science quarterly ,  33 (3), 258–263. doi: 10.1177/0894318420920602
  • Garritty, C., Gartlehner, G., Nussbaumer-Streit, B., King, V. J., Hamel, C., Kamel, C., Affengruber, L., & Stevens, A. (2021). Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group offers evidence-informed guidance to conduct rapid reviews .  Journal of clinical epidemiology ,  130 , 13–22. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.10.007
  • Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies .  Health information and libraries journal ,  26 (2), 91–108. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x

Toronto, C. E., & Remington, R. (2020).  A Step-By-Step Guide to Conducting an Integrative Review.  Springer International Publishing AG. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-37504-1

  • Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: guidelines and examples .  Human Resource Development Review, 4 (3), 356–367. doi: 10.1177/1534484305278283
  • Whittemore. (2007). Rigour in Integrative Reviews . In Webb, C., & Roe, B. (Eds.),  Reviewing Research Evidence for Nursing Practice (pp. 149–156). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470692127.ch11
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  • Next: Rapid Review >>

Other Names for an Integrative Review

  • Integrative Literature Review
  • Systematic Integrative Review
  • Integrative Research Review

Limitations of an Integrative Review

The following challenges of integrative reviews are derived from Toronto & Remington (2020) , Whitmore & Knafl (2005) , and Broome (2000) .

  • The combination and complexity of incorporating diverse methodologies can contribute to lack of rigor, inaccuracy, and bias.
  • Methods of analysis, synthesis, and conclusion-drawing remain poorly formulated.
  • Combining empirical and theoretical reports can be difficult.
  • There is no current guidance on reporting.

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Knowledge syntheses: systematic & scoping reviews, and other review types.

  • Before you start
  • Getting Started
  • Different Types of Knowledge Syntheses
  • Assemble a Team
  • Develop your Protocol
  • Eligibility Criteria
  • Screening for articles
  • Data Extraction
  • Critical appraisal
  • What are Systematic Reviews?
  • What is a Meta-Analysis?
  • What are Scoping Reviews?
  • What are Rapid Reviews?
  • What are Realist Reviews?
  • What are Mapping Reviews?

When is an integrative review methodology appropiate?

Elements of an integrative review, methods and guidance.

  • What are Umbrella Reviews?
  • Standards and Guidelines
  • Supplementary Resources for All Review Types
  • Resources for Qualitative Synthesis
  • Resources for Quantitative Synthesis
  • Resources for Mixed Methods Synthesis
  • Bibliography
  • More Questions?
  • Common Mistakes in Systematic Reviews, scoping reviews, and other review types

An integrative review is a specific review method that summarises past empirical or theoretical literature to provide a greater comprehensive understanding of a particular phenomenon or healthcare problem (Broome 1993). Thus, integrative reviews have the potential to build upon nursing science, informing research, practice, and policy initiatives. 

An integrative review method is an approach that allows for the inclusion of diverse methodologies (i.e. experimental and non-experimental research) and has the potential to play a greater role in evidence-based practice for nursing (Whittemore et al., 2005) .

When to Use It: According to  Toronto, C., & Remington, R.(2020) , Whitmore et al. (2005) , Broome (1993): an integrative review approach is best suited for:

A research scope focused more broadly at a phenomenon of interest rather than a systematic review and allows for diverse research, which may contain theoretical and methodological literature to address the aim of the review

Supporting a wide range of inquiry, such as defining concepts, reviewing theories, or analyzing methodological issues

Examining the complexity of nursing practice more broadly by using diverse data sources

The following characteristics, strengths, and challenges of integrative reviews are derived from Toronto, C., & Remington, R.(2020) , Whitmore et al. (2005) , Broome (1993):

Characteristics:

A review method that summarises past empirical or theoretical literature to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a particular phenomenon or healthcare problem

An integrative review is best designed for nursing practice

The problem must be clearly defined

The aim of the review is to analyze experimental and non-experimental research simultaneously in order to:

Define concepts

Review theories

Review evidence/point out gaps in the literature

Analyze methodological issues

Best designed for nursing research

Evidence produced from well-conducted integrative reviews contributes to nursing knowledge by clarifying phenomena, which in turn informs nursing practice and clinical practice guidelines

Challenges:

The combination and complexity of incorporating diverse methodologies can contribute to a lack of rigour, inaccuracy, and bias

Methods of analysis, synthesis, and conclusion-drawing remain poorly formulated

Combining empirical and theoretical reports can be difficult

There is no current guidance on reporting

The following resources are considered to be the best  guidance for conduct  in the field of integrative reviews.

METHODS & GUIDANCE

Hopia, H., Latvala, E., & Liimatainen, L. (2016). Reviewing the methodology of an integrative review.   Scandinavian journal of caring sciences ,  30 (4), 662–669. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12327

Russell C. L. (2005). An overview of the integrative research review.   Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) ,  15 (1), 8–13

Toronto, & Remington, R. (2020). A Step-By-Step Guide to Conducting an Integrative Review (1st ed.). Springer International Publishing AG.

Whittemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: updated methodology .  Journal of advanced nursing ,  52 (5), 546–553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x

REPORTING GUIDELINE

There is currently no reporting guideline for integrative reviews.

  • << Previous: What are Mapping Reviews?
  • Next: What are Umbrella Reviews? >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 23, 2024 9:24 AM
  • URL: https://guides.library.utoronto.ca/systematicreviews

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Literature Reviews: Systematic, Scoping, Integrative

Characteristics of review types, choosing a review type.

Steps in a Systematic/Scoping/Integrative Review

Confirming the Knowledge Gap

Standards and reporting guidelines.

  • Creating a Search Strategy
  • Limits and Inclusion Criteria
  • Review Protocols
  • Elements of a Systematic Review
  • Review Tools and Applications

Not sure which review type is right for your research question? Check out the links below for help choosing.

  • What Review is Right for You? v2 14 page PDF survey to help you determine which review type might work best for you. Very thorough!
  • Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. Munn, Z., Peters, M. D. J., Stern, C., Tufanaru, C., McArthur, A., & Aromataris, E. (2018). Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 18(1), 143. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0611-x

Creating an effective search for a systematic review means walking a tightrope between comprehensiveness and managability. You want to try to include all of the studies that could possibly be relevant while simultaneously getting your search results down to a number of articles that you can realistically review. 

The Basic Process:

  • Develop a research question.
  • Search databases to see if a review has already been published on your topic. 
  • Select the type of review (systematic, scoping, integrative)
  • Select databases.
  • Select grey literature sources (if applicable). Read this article for helpful suggestions on systematically searching for grey literature.
  • Formulate an initial search for one of your selected databases. For tips on searching, consult our Mastering Keyword Searching guide.
  • Review results from initial search, scanning titles, abstracts, and subject headings to identify additional terms.
  • Run the search again, and continue to add and subtract terms until your results are a reasonable size and predominantly relevant to your question.
  • When you think your search is nearly final, gather 2-3 of your most relevant articles and test their reference lists against your search results. If your search contains most of the relevant articles from those reference lists, your have your final search (remember no search is ever perfect, and you will nearly always add articles you find via reference lists, recommendations, etc. that did not appear in your search results). 
  • Translate your search to your other databases. Generally your keywords will stay the same across databases, but you will most likely need to adjust your subject headings, because those can vary from database to database.
  • Ask a librarian to peer review your search. Try the PRESS checklist . 
  • Develop inclusion and exclusion criteria in preparation for reviewing articles (this step may come later for a scoping review)
  • Write a protocol .
  • Database name (be as specific as possible, including the full title, especially for databases that are offered in multiple formats, e.g. Ovid Medline) and dates of coverage.
  • Search terms, including indicating which are subject headings and which are keywords plus any limitations to where the keywords were search if relevant.
  • Database limits/filters applied to the results (e.g. publication year, language, etc.).
  • Date of your search.
  • Number of results.
  • Begin title/abstract screening. Two reviewers for each item is best practice.
  • Begin full-text review of the articles still remaining. Again, two reviewers for each item is best practice. 
  • Conduct citation mining for the articles that make it through full-text review. That means looking at reference lists (backwards searching) and searching for articles that cite back to the article you have (forward searching). You might also consider setting aside all of the systematic and scoping reviews that came up with your search (generally those are excluded from your review) and mining their reference lists as well. Repeat the title/abstract screening and full-text reviews for the articles identified through citation mining.
  • Check all articles that made it through the full-text review for retractions, and remove any articles that have been retracted. 
  • If doing a systematic review, conduct a critical appraisal of included articles (aka Risk of Bias Assessment).
  • Begin data extraction.
  • Begin data synthesis.
  • Prepare your manuscript.

Before beginning your review, you need to be sure that no other reviews with the same research question as yours already exist or are in progress. This is easily done by searching research databases and protocol registries.

Databases to Check

a literature integrative review

Protocol Registries

  • PROSPERO PROSPERO accepts registrations for systematic reviews, rapid reviews and umbrella reviews. PROSPERO does not accept scoping reviews or literature scans. Sibling PROSPERO sites register systematic reviews of human studies and systematic reviews of animal studies.

a literature integrative review

It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the standards and reporting guidelines for the type of review you are planning to do. Following the standards/guidelines as you plan and execute your review will help ensure that you minimize bias and maximize your chances of getting published.

Systematic Reviews

  • PRISMA Statement The PRISMA statement is currently the standards and guidelines of choice for systematic reviews. At the link you will find the statement as well as explanations of each element, a checklist of elements, a PRISMA flow diagram template, and more.

a literature integrative review

  • IOM Finding What Works in Healthcare: Standards for Systematic Reviews Standards from the National Academy of Medicine and National Academies Press. The free download link is all the way over on the right.

Scoping Reviews

  • PRISMA-SCR Extension for Scoping Reviews A PRISMA statement, explanation and checklist specifically for scoping reviews.
  • Updated methodological guidance for the conduct of scoping reviews While the PRISMA-SCR provides reporting guidelines, these guidelines from JBI are for how to actually plan and do your review. This is the explanation for updates made to the manual linked below. You can skip this article and go directly to the JBI manual if you prefer.

Integrative Reviews

  • Whittemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52 (5), 546–553. This article is the current standard for designing an integrative review. more... less... https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x
  • Tavares de Souza, M., Dias da Silva, M., & de Carvalho, R. (2010). Integrative review: What is it? How to do it? Einstein, 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.1590/s1679-45082010rw1134
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  • Last Updated: Nov 2, 2023 9:50 AM
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a literature integrative review

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a literature integrative review

Organizing Your Review

Your lit review should not be a summary and evaluation of each article, one after the other.  Your sources must be integrated together to create a narrative on your topic.  Consider the following ways to organize your review:

  • By themes, variables, issues.
  • By varying perspectives regarding a topic of controversy.
  • Chronologically, to show how the topic and research have developed over time.

Main Components of a Literature Review

Introduction.

  • Describe the topic and provide a basic definition.
  • Parameters of the topic. (What does the topic include and exclude?)
  • Why did you select the literature you did?
  • Historical background.
  • Definitions in use.
  • Mainstream ideas vs. alternative theoretical or ideological views.
  • Principle questions being asked.
  • Current research studies and discoveries.
  • Methodologies.
  • General conclusions.
  • Summary of agreements and disagreements from the literature.
  • How does your thesis fit in?
  • << Previous: Synthesize
  • Last Updated: Sep 26, 2023 10:25 AM
  • URL: https://guides.library.jhu.edu/lit-review

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Literature Reviews

Finding reviews, grey literature.

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Literature reviews are summaries of the literature on a particular topic. Reviews are generally considered "research", especially systematic and integrative reviews, but are not experimental in nature. There are several kinds of reviews: plain literature reviews , systematic reviews , and integrative reviews are the most common.  Chapter 5 of Introduction to Nursing Research: Incorporating Evidence-based Practice  ( Cannon &  Boswell, 2011, 2nd ed. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning)  covers the purpose and process of a literature review in the context of writing a research article, thesis, or dissertation. How to undertake a literature search: a step-by-step guide (Watson, 2020, BJN, 29(7): 431-435) is a good overall guide.

Types of literature reviews:

  • summaries of relevant literature
  • generally descriptive
  • not necessarily any analysis of the literature
  • methodology of the literature search is not always given
  • good for gaining background knowledge of a subject without having to do all the searches and reading yourself.
  • good source for starting reading lists and literature searches.
  • not generally considered a good source for clinical decision making
  • Note: In the past, reviews were not differentiated by type, so older reviews may use systematic or integrative methodology but not be specified as such.
  • Reading: Ten simple rules for writing a literature review  ( Pautasso, M. (2013). PLoS Comput Biol ,  9 (7), e1003149.)
  • Reading:  Conducting Your Literature Review (Hempel, S. (2020). Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.)
  • specifically includes experimental research studies
  • search and selection methodology is very precise and should be explicitly described well enough for another researcher to duplicate the searches and the study selection. See Table 1 of this article (Hoojimans et al. (2012). PLoS One,  7 (11): e48811) for a good example of describing the search methods.
  • the purpose of a systematic review is to reach some conclusion regarding the topic: for example, the selection of high quality studies to be used in a meta-analysis*, the gaps in current research, or the best clinical evidence for determining evidence based practice.
  • the first stage of meta-analysis studies--all meta-analyses should include a systematic review, but all systematic reviews do not lead to a meta-analysis
  • usually done in a group to reduce researcher bias in the selection and evaluation of individual studies
  • Reading:  A practical guide to conducting a systematic review  ( Forward & Hobby, 2002, Nursing Times,  98 (2), 36) provides some basic advice for conducting a systematic review. Reading:   PRISMA-S: an extension to the PRISMA Statement for Reporting Literature Searches in Systematic Reviews . (Rethlefsen, M.L., et al. (2021).  Syst Rev   10 ,  39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01542-z)
  • commonly include non-experimental research, such as case studies, observational studies, and meta-analyses, but may also include practice applications, theory, and guidelines
  • should have clear and precise search and selection criteria
  • search and selection methodology should be described well enough for another researcher to duplicate the process
  • selected literature should be analyzed, not just summarized--articles and groups of articles compared, themes identified, gaps noted, etc.
  • Reading:  The integrative review: updated methodology  (Whittemore & Knaf, 2005, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(5), 546–553) provides an overview of the purpose and practice of integrative reviews. Reading:  A Step-by-Step Guide to Conducting an Integrative Review | SpringerLink  (SCSU ebook, login required.)
  • ​​​​​​​ aims at determining the scope or extent of the research on a topic
  • often more descriptive than analytical
  • Reading: PRISMA guideline for scoping reviews
  • Reading: An Evidence Based Approach to Scoping Reviews
  • JBI's scoping review website
  • University of South Australia's guide on scoping reviews

*A meta-analysis study is one where carefully selected data from previous studies is combined to bring more rigor to a statistical or other analysis. No additional experimental work is done (usually). A systematic review is necessary to be sure that the data from the selected studies is comparable and combinable.

Additional reading:

Cover Art

  • Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: An analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x
  • Comparison of Scoping, Systematic, and Narrative Reviews From the University of South Australia's Scoping Review Guide
  • Munn, Z., Peters, M.D.J., Stern, C. et al. (2018). Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Med Res Methodol 18, 143. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0611-x

a literature integrative review

"Grey Literature" is the non journal article literature that isn't usually included in library database searches. It can include things like agency reports, grant proposals and reports, whitepapers, theses/dissertations, etc. It is SOMETIMES appropriate to include grey literature in a review.

  • CADTH (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health) Grey Matters Suggestions and directions for searching for grey literature
  • << Previous: Articles on Nursing Theory
  • Next: Writing, Citing, and Presenting >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 17, 2024 3:44 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.southernct.edu/nursing

a literature integrative review

Integrative Review

  • Introduction
  • Systematic vs. Scoping vs. Integrative
  • Related Guides
  • Getting Help

Systematic vs. Scoping vs. Integrative Review

  • If you are wondering whether to perform a scoping review, integrative review, or systematic review, the following summaries can help you determine which review type is most appropriate for your research or clinical question. Grant and Booth (2009)  and Whittemore et al (2014)  describe additional review types that may better fit your research.
  • Please note : The heading for each column in the table below links to Gumberg Library research guides.
  • << Previous: Resources
  • Next: References >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 31, 2024 3:56 PM
  • URL: https://guides.library.duq.edu/integrative

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  • Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res
  • v.21(2); Mar-Apr 2016

An integrative review of literature on determinants of nurses’ organizational commitment

Seyyed abolfazl vagharseyyedin.

1 Nursing and Midwifery College, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Ayatollah Ghaffari Avenue, Birjand, Iran

Background:

This integrative review was aimed to examine in literature and integrate the determinants of nurses’ organizational commitment in hospital settings.

Materials and Methods:

In this study, an integrative review of the literature was used. The search strategy began with six electronic databases (e.g. CINAHL and Medline). Considering the inclusion criteria, published studies that examined the factors influencing nurses’ organizational commitment in the timeframe of 2000 through 2013 were chosen. Data extraction and analysis were completed on all included studies. The final sample for this integrative review comprised 33 studies.

Based on common meanings and central issues, 63 different factors contributing to nurses’ organizational commitment were integrated and grouped into four main categories: Personal characteristics and traits of nurses, leadership and management style and behavior, perception of organizational context, and characteristics of job and work environment.

Conclusions:

In general, categories emerged in this study could be useful for formulating initiatives to stimulate nurses’ OC. However, little is known about the relative significance of each identified factor among nurses working in different countries. Qualitative research is recommended for narrowing this gap. Future research should be directed to examine the psychometric properties of the organizational scales for nurses in different cultures.

I NTRODUCTION

It is widely agreed that organizational commitment (OC) is an important determinant of nurse turnover.[ 1 , 2 ] Previous research has suggested a significant positive association between work outcomes such as performance and productivity, and OC.[ 3 , 4 ]

In general, OC is variously defined and conceptualized in the literature; however, there are two perspectives on this concept in general: Attitudinal and behavioral.[ 5 ] The attitudinal perspective focuses on employee's identifying with the organization and his/her desire to maintain the relationship with the organization,[ 6 ] whereas OC, from a behavioral perspective, describes a person's preoccupation with the organization as evidenced by personal time devoted to organizational activities.[ 7 ]

According to Zangaro, the most widely accepted definition of OC is that suggested by Mowday et al .[ 5 ] They define it as “the relative strength of an individual's linkage to the organization”; this is further characterized by three factors which are strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's goals and values, willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and strong desire to maintain membership in the organization .[ 8 ]

It can be assumed that factors influencing OC may change over time. That is because nurses continue to experience changes in role and function in the workplace. Carver and Candela emphasize on each generation's unique perspective of OC.[ 9 ] It is extremely important for nurse managers to understand the influencing factors on the OC of the current nursing workforce. Thus, the current review was aimed to assess in literature and integrate the determinants of nurses’ OC in hospital settings.

M ATERIALS AND M ETHODS

Study design.

In this integrative review, the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Since the integrative review method has been critiqued for lack of rigor and its potential for bias, Whittemore and Knafl have provided a five-step process to enhance the rigor of this method in nursing. According to them, the process of an integrative review includes articulation of the problem to be studied, completion of a well-defined literature search, evaluation of the quality of data, analysis of the data, and presentation of conclusions. The first step is a clear identification of the problem that the review is addressing and the purpose of the review. Literature search should clearly address issues such as search terms, the databases used, additional search strategies, and the inclusion and exclusion criteria for determining relevant primary sources. For evaluating and interpreting the quality of included studies, no gold standard exists.[ 10 ] The American Association of Critical Care Nurses’ (AACN) Evidence-Leveling Hierarchy[ 11 ] has been effectively used for grading in the integrative review method, where diverse primary sources (such as quantitative and qualitative studies) are included.[ 12 , 13 ] In the data analysis process, data from primary sources are ordered, coded, categorized, and summarized into a unified and integrated conclusion. Finally, conclusions of reviews can be reported in a table or diagram.[ 10 ]

A systematic search was conducted using six online databases: CINAHL, Medline, ERIC, PROQUEST, and two Iranian databases: Iran Medex, and Scientific Information Database. Keywords used for this review were “organisational commitment” or “organizational commitment” with limitation to studies conducted in nursing. The inclusion criteria were: (a) Works written in English or Persian in the timeframe of 2000 through March 2013, (b) the inclusion of the search term in the title or the keywords, (c) scholarly works published in a peer-reviewed journals, and (d) studies including nurses who worked only in hospitals. Studies that used a mixed sample of nurses along with other healthcare workers were included if only the studies consistently analyzed and reported nurses’ information separately from other participants. The studies that were excluded included those described in one-page reviews, letters, and those published in other than the selected languages. Furthermore, additional papers from reference lists of the studies reviewed were identified. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of nurses’ OC; therefore, those studies that applied experimental design were excluded with the goal of improved understanding of factors influencing OC in the absence of variable manipulation. The search was completed in April 2013.

The initial search resulted in a sample of 594 articles (464 English and 130 Persian articles). In light of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 33 studies remained in our review [ Table 1 ].

A summary of reviewed studies

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In the current review, studies were evaluated for quality using the AACN revised evidence-leveling system. The new AACN structure consists of six rating levels. Meta-analyses and meta-syntheses are placed as the highest levels of evidence (Level A). Level B includes both randomized and non-randomized well-designed controlled studies. Level C encompasses qualitative studies, descriptive or correlational studies, integrative reviews, systematic reviews, or randomized controlled trials with inconsistent results. Level D indicates peer-reviewed professional organizational standards. Level E signifies theory-based evidence from multiple-case reports and expert opinion, and Level M is used to identify manufacturer recommendations.[ 11 ] In the current review, 32 out of the 33 included studies (96.9%) used a quantitative cross-sectional design. McNeese-Smith used a qualitative method, however.[ 40 ] Therefore, as presented in Table 1 , almost all the included studies were descriptive in nature with most receiving a level C rating.

Analytic strategy

The data were analyzed with consideration of purpose, methods, and findings of the reviewed studies. Taking into consideration the main findings, descriptions of determinants of OC were first extracted and the way these factors affected OC was identified and summarized. Then, based on common meanings and central issues of these findings, they were organized and integrated as categories and themes. A summary of four main categories and their themes was emerged and are presented in Table 2 .

Summary of determinants of nurses’ OC

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Measurement of OC and methodological aspects of the studies reviewed

The three scales developed by Allen and Meyer (1990), Meyer et al . (1993), and Meyer and Allen (1997) were used in 17 out of 33 included studies.[ 14 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 29 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 42 , 44 ] According to Meyer and Allen, OC contains the following three dimensions: (1) Affective commitment that refers to the members of an organization who are emotionally attached to, identify themselves with, and feel devoted to an organization; (2) continuance commitment that describes the employees who are committed because they believe the costs associated with leaving the organization are too high and, hence, they remain; and (3) normative commitment that refers to the group of employees who feel like they should stay with the organization beyond a sense of obligation.[ 47 ] It is noteworthy that 11 studies used the affective OC subscale of each of the above scales.[ 18 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 42 , 44 , 46 ]

The 15-item scale by Mowday et al . (1979) was used to measure OC in 7 of the 33 included studies.[ 15 , 26 , 27 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 43 , 45 ] Yang and Chang (2008) used the scale developed by Mowday et al . (1982) which contained three dimensions: (1) A strong belief in, and acceptance of, the organization's goals and values (value commitment); (2) a willingness to exert a considerable effort on behalf of the organization (effort commitment); and (3) a strong intent or desire to remain with the organization (retention commitment).[ 45 ] Chang and Chang[ 19 ] and Ho et al .[ 28 ] evaluated OC through a researcher-made questionnaire. Leach[ 36 ] assessed OC using a 15-item commitment scale developed by Penley and Gould (1988). This scale contains three subscales: Moral commitment (a normative, internalized identification with organization), calculative commitment (a remunerative or compliance involvement in organization), and alienative commitment (a negative resistance).[ 36 ]

The 15-item OC scale developed by Porter et al . (1974) was used in Chiok Foong Loke's study.[ 21 ] Jalonen et al . used a single question to inquire about OC.[ 30 ] Finally, in the study of Chang et al .,[ 20 ] OC was measured by Blauetal's (1993) tool, which comprised six items.

In the majority of studies reviewed, nurses’ OC was measured using similar tools. Thus, it should be said that the authors had a similar view of the empirical referents of OC. On the one hand, it can be considered as a potential strength because the results of such studies enable researchers to make international comparisons.

In light of the statistical analysis, all the reviewed studies except three[ 24 , 27 , 36 ] used multiple regression analysis. Moreover, a considerable number of researchers used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).[ 17 , 22 , 26 , 28 , 35 , 43 , 45 ] It is obvious that applying such statistical technique can be helpful to test the proposed models of OC in nursing field and, consequently, to develop the body of knowledge in nursing. Some included studies were guided by a theoretical framework[ 22 , 32 , 35 , 36 , 41 , 45 ] which enhances the validity of the studies.

Determinants of nurses’ OC

Personal characteristics and traits of nurses.

The category of personal characteristics and traits of nurses encompasses two themes including a) biopsychosocial parameters and b) personal and family life.

Regarding the biopsychosocial parameters theme, age was positively correlated with OC in three studies.[ 20 , 30 , 36 ] Also, age was found to be negatively associated with calculative commitment in one study.[ 36 ] In Tsai and Wu's study, OC was not related to age.[ 43 ] These findings indicate a need for more exploration of impact of age on OC.

Four studies reported that as job tenure increased, OC increased too.[ 15 , 20 , 29 , 36 ] However, in Liou and Cheng's (2010) study, job tenure was negatively related to OC.[ 37 ] Personality trait of extroversion, as a third psychological factor in this theme, positively influenced OC.[ 15 ] Furthermore, mental health, emotional intelligence,[ 16 ] and well-being[ 17 ] were found to be associated with increased levels of OC. The other factors included psychological distress,[ 30 ] individual levels of negative affectivity,[ 18 ] and burnout[ 22 , 35 ] that were found to negatively impact OC. Negative affectivity was considered as the extent to which certain negative emotions were experienced by nurses. As opposed to these latter factors, psychological empowerment (the psychological state that employees must experience for managerial empowerment interventions to be successful) positively influenced OC in two studies.[ 34 , 41 ] Within this theme, factors such as employee engagement,[ 17 ] job satisfaction,[ 14 , 19 , 21 , 26 , 28 , 29 , 38 ] social rewards,[ 42 ] and professional commitment[ 39 ] were also identified as positive determinants of nurses’ OC. In addition, McNeese-Smith showed that preferring stability to change positively affected OC.[ 40 ] The final factor in this theme was “surface acting” which negatively impacted OC. In surface acting, persons modify and control their emotional expressions. Inauthentic surface acting may result over time in a feeling of detachment from one's true feelings.[ 45 ]

Five factors formed the theme of personal and family life. Life satisfaction was found to be positively correlated with OC.[ 44 ] The remaining four factors included meeting the family's needs, creating a better life for self and family, and having a plan to retire from the organization, all of which were reported as positive determinants of OC.[ 40 ]

Leadership and management style and behavior

Both nature of relationships and leadership style were themes of influence within the leadership and management style and behavior category. Nature of relationships included factors such as psychological rewards from the head nurse and supervisor incivility which were effective in shaping the interpersonal relationships between managers and nurses. First, perception of nurses of managers’ practice was cited as an important determinant of OC. For example, in English and Chalon's study, fairness perception of change management was associated with higher levels of affective commitment.[ 25 ] Also, a positive correlation was reported between OC and relational justice. Relational justice refers to the extent to which employees perceive the supervisor as treating them with politeness and consideration.[ 30 ] Finally, the researchers found that both psychological rewards received from the head nurse[ 23 ] and trust in management[ 33 ] were positive predictors of OC. In contrast to the four factors described, the remaining two factors within nature of relationships theme, i.e., supervisor in civility[ 35 , 41 ] and employee cynicism, were negatively related to OC.[ 25 ] According to English and Chalon who studied the relationship between employee cynicism and OC, employee cynicism is targeted toward senior management and stems from perceptions of unfair management practices.[ 25 ]

Organizational context

Two themes were identified within this category: Organization's norms and performance and organizational policies and procedures.

Organization's norms and performance theme focused on findings about the perception held by nurses concerning organizational climate and practice. As presented in Table 2 , this theme included eight factors. First, positive perceptions of the fairness of personnel practices (procedural justice and interactional justice) were positively related to OC.[ 25 ] Conversely, lack of fairness from organization was related to lack of OC in the study of McNeese-Smith.[ 40 ] As the next factor, favorable perception of internal marketing was noted as a positive predictor of OC.[ 43 ] The concept of internal marketing argues that enterprises should value and respect their employees by treating them as internal customers. Another factor identified was perceived organizational support, which was found to be associated with increased levels of OC.[ 17 ] In one study, perception of organizational culture (emotional climate, practice issues, and collaborative relations) was a strong positive predictor of nurses’ OC.[ 26 ] Within this theme, organizational trust was also a positive predictor of commitment among nurses.[ 31 ] The relationship between OC and psychological contracts, as another factor, was found to be positive in the study of Kafashpour et al .[ 31 ] These authors defined psychological contract as the individual's idea about mutual obligations in the context of the relationship between the employer and the employee. Finally, factors related to organizational climate such as warmth, conflicts, and standards were shown to be positively correlated with higher levels of OC.[ 37 ]

The organizational policies and procedures theme encompasses two factors: Permanent job status/job security and monetary benefits. Change from temporary job status to a permanent one predicted sustained OC of the staff nurses in two studies.[ 27 , 30 ] Consistent with this finding, job security was one of the emerged factors in the study conducted by McNeese-Smith.[ 40 ] Also, in the above-mentioned study, nurses cited monetary benefits as one of the factors shaping high-level commitment.

Characteristics of job and work environment

This category included three themes: Growth and development, content and organization of tasks, and mutual respect.

Growth and development theme consisted of seven studies that examined the influence of appropriate role performance and career development on OC. Chang et al .[ 20 ] found that the gap between career needs and career development programs made negative contributions to OC. In five studies, having access to conditions that enabled optimal role performance of the nurses (structural empowerment) positively influenced affective OC.[ 22 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 41 ] A negative correlation between uncertainty of patients’ treatment and affective OC was also reported.[ 18 ] Finally, being in a learning environment, modern technology, the opportunity for acquiring new skills, and continuing education were found to be associated with higher levels of OC.[ 40 ]

Several factors related to the nature of nurses’ tasks and work environment conditions were integrated into the content and organization of tasks theme. A favorable perception of work environment conditions, such as interpersonal relationships, managerial support, and regular routines, was found to be positively associated with higher levels of affective commitment in two studies.[ 42 , 44 ] Job control[ 30 ] and job rotation[ 28 ] were cited as significant determinants of OC. In two of the included studies, the perception of role conflict and ambiguity were negatively related to nurses’ OC.[ 18 , 39 ] Also, significant positive relationships between OC, professional privilege,[ 42 ] workplace spirituality,[ 32 ] and clinical challenges[ 42 ] were reported. In McNeese-Smith's study,[ 40 ] difficult or repetitive patient care negatively influenced OC. In addition, time pressure,[ 18 ] job stress,[ 39 , 35 ] and overload[ 40 ] were found to be negative determinants of OC.

Focus of mutual respect theme covered interpersonal relationships existing in the work environment. One of the factors within this theme was participative safety,[ 42 ] which was found to be a positive determinant of nurses’ OC. Generally, participative safety was conceptualized as the extent to which the interpersonal atmosphere was non-threatening in the study of Jalonen et al .[ 30 ] Workplace violence,[ 18 , 24 ] bullying, and internal emotional abuse[ 24 ] were identified as negative determinants of OC. According to Demir and Rodwell,[ 24 ] internal emotional abuse points out to types of workplace violence exerted by coworkers or supervisors. Consistent with these findings, McNeese-Smith[ 40 ] reported that having good relations with coworkers was associated with higher levels of OC. Finally, nurses’ satisfaction with psychological rewards received from physicians was identified to positively impact their affective OC.[ 23 ]

D ISCUSSION

The purpose of this integrative review was to examine in literature and integrate the determinants of nurses’ OC in hospital settings. Different factors from 33 included studies were integrated into nine themes. Afterward, based on the common meanings and the relationships between the themes, this rather large number of themes was combined into four main categories. The categories included: Personal characteristics and traits of nurses, leadership and management style and behavior, perception of organizational context, and characteristics of job and work environment. Factors within each theme were found to positively or negatively influence the OC of nurses working in hospitals. The current review also showed that research was inconsistent with respect to the correlation between some personal factors such as age and OC. A possible argument is that these findings may be context-specific and should be taken into account when managers want to design initiatives to stimulate nurses’ OC. In other words, issues important for a specific age group of nurses in one country may not be as much important for nurses of the same age group in another country.

A review of literature indicates that many factors influencing OC identified in this study can be improved by specific interventions designed to this end. Job stress, coworker incivility, burnout, work environment conditions, empowerment, and management style are among these factors.[ 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]

In addition, as noted previously, researchers believed that different generations of nurses have unique perspectives of OC. Employees born into a generational cohort of peers have similar life experiences. These experiences have strong effects on their work values and needs as well as their expectations of employers, which in turn impact the influential parameters of employees’ OC. As an example, Carver and Candela[ 9 ] believed that nurses born during 1961-1981 prefer working independently, while younger ones enjoy working in groups.[ 9 ] So, it can be expected the integrated findings in the current review provide a foundation for comparison of factors that contribute to OC of different generations of nurses. Further, these findings have potential for developing the body of knowledge related to OC in nursing context and clarifying theoretical basis of this concept.

As another finding in this study, it became evident that all the tools applied for measuring nurses’ OC were developed in western countries. It has been suggested that the concept of OC is culturally specific.[ 5 ] Since work culture varies in different countries, the conceptual framework and operationalization of commitment may be understood differently across various countries.[ 54 ] It is not meant that tools developed in western countries are not valid in other countries such as Iran; it simply means that these tools need to be tested more in other cultures before their validity can be fully established. On the other hand, healthcare organizations in different countries face different challenges, which in turn impact the OC of employees. Qualitative research has the potential to offer some insights into nurses’ experiences of OC in different countries and cultures and, hence, to provide valuable context-based data.

Most of the included studies used a cross-sectional design, and hence, the potential reciprocal relationships between revealed determinants and nurses’ OC cannot be fully interpreted causally. Therefore, as far as possible, future research could be conducted using longitudinal designs to further consider the impact of the specific determinants of OC.

Also, only three studies addressed anonymity of respondents.[ 23 , 32 , 43 ] This limitation may have influenced the responses to some extent if nurses felt worried about loss of their job position in hospital. Also, all the studies reviewed relied upon self-report of OC levels when assessing determinants. In the future studies, researchers may need to examine the OC among nurses using data triangulation that refers to the use of multiple methods of data sources to validate conclusions. For example, the nurses’ performance and questions regarding their performance appraisal should be included in the assessment of OC. In addition, measurement of the level of OC, along with the related outcomes such as nurse turnover,[ 55 ] may contribute to a broader understanding of nurses’ feelings toward their organizations. Moreover, positive results bias should not be ignored when interpreting the results of the current review. Positive results bias means that the researchers who obtain positive findings are more likely to submit their papers to a journal. Nevertheless, the included studies had considerable strengths. Notably, all but four studies drew their samples from more than one site, which in turn might have increased the generalizability of studies included.[ 21 , 24 , 31 , 45 ]

We acknowledge that this review has some limitations. In the present review, only those studies published in English and Persian were included. This may have resulted in the omission of several valuable studies. Also, it is evident that OC is an important construct in turnover research. Considering the selected inclusion criteria in this review, we may have possibly missed research studies that have looked at the antecedents and consequences of OC in the context of turnover.

C ONCLUSION

Nurses’ OC is influenced by various factors related to personal characteristics, leadership and management, organizational context, and characteristics of job and work environment. Given the different work cultures across the world, nevertheless, little is known about the relative significance of each factor among nurses working in different countries. These issues should be taken into account in planning the evidence-based strategies to improve nurses’ OC. For this end, qualitative research will be an invaluable tool. These studies will capture the real perception of nurses about OC and specific factors impacting it. The findings of the present study could be useful for formulating initiatives to stimulate nurses’ OC. In future researches, reviewing this construct, specifically in the context of turnover, can be considered. As the next step, researchers are recommended to plan research studies that will reveal the causes of high OC on which organizations can influence directly. Future research can also be designed to compare the influential factors on OC in different generations of nurses in countries such as Iran with its specific social and economical context. Finally, regarding the used scales for measuring the OC, future research can be directed to test the psychometric properties of the OC scales for nurses in the different societies or cultures.

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared.

R EFERENCES

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Literature Reviews

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a literature integrative review

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a literature integrative review

Definition: A literature review is a systematic examination and synthesis of existing scholarly research on a specific topic or subject.

Purpose: It serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge within a particular field.

Analysis: Involves critically evaluating and summarizing key findings, methodologies, and debates found in academic literature.

Identifying Gaps: Aims to pinpoint areas where there is a lack of research or unresolved questions, highlighting opportunities for further investigation.

Contextualization: Enables researchers to understand how their work fits into the broader academic conversation and contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

a literature integrative review

tl;dr  A literature review critically examines and synthesizes existing scholarly research and publications on a specific topic to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge in the field.

What is a literature review NOT?

❌ An annotated bibliography

❌ Original research

❌ A summary

❌ Something to be conducted at the end of your research

❌ An opinion piece

❌ A chronological compilation of studies

The reason for conducting a literature review is to:

a literature integrative review

Literature Reviews: An Overview for Graduate Students

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MFT 204: MFT 204: INDIVIDUAL AND FAMILY LIFE CYCLE DEVELOPMENT Bosley 2024

  • Literature review
  • Using PICO to Determine Search Terms
  • Find Articles
  • Search strategies
  • Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
  • Evidence Based Practice
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  • Citation: APA 7

How to Write a Literature Review

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Ten Simple Rules for Writing a Literature Review  - This PLoS One article itemizes the steps in the lit review process.

Drafting the Literature Review :  Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center's LibGuide for drafting and structuring a literature review.

Literature Reviews:  Handout created by the Writing Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Related LibGuide

Writing in the Health Sciences

What is a Literature Review?

"A  literature review  discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period.

A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant.

Source:  Literature Reviews – The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (unc.edu)

"Literature reviews can be written as both full-length articles that present the “state of the art” on a topic, or as introductions to new original research studies.

The stand-alone literature review:.

When a literature review stands alone, it is reviewing what is known about the topic, analyzed for trends, controversial issues, and what still needs to be studied to better understand the topic at hand. A stand-alone literature review can be as short as a few pages or may be more extensive with long bibliographies for in-depth reviews. 

The Literature Review as a Section:

Literature reviews can be used as part of dissertations, theses, research reports, and scholarly journal articles. They generally discuss what has been done before and how the research being introduced in this document fills a gap in the field's knowledge and why it is an important.  

Source:  Home - Writing a Literature Review - LibGuides at Wichita State University

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Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence

Title: artificial intelligence for literature reviews: opportunities and challenges.

Abstract: This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs). A SLR is a rigorous and organised methodology that assesses and integrates previous research on a given topic. Numerous tools have been developed to assist and partially automate the SLR process. The increasing role of AI in this field shows great potential in providing more effective support for researchers, moving towards the semi-automatic creation of literature reviews. Our study focuses on how AI techniques are applied in the semi-automation of SLRs, specifically in the screening and extraction phases. We examine 21 leading SLR tools using a framework that combines 23 traditional features with 11 AI features. We also analyse 11 recent tools that leverage large language models for searching the literature and assisting academic writing. Finally, the paper discusses current trends in the field, outlines key research challenges, and suggests directions for future research.

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Using High-Fidelity Virtual Reality for Mass-Casualty Incident Training by First Responders - A Systematic Review of the Literature

Affiliations.

  • 1 Department of Health Promoting Science, Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 2 Falck Ambulance Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 3 Department of Health Sciences, Swedish Red Cross University, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 4 School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
  • 5 Samariten Ambulance, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 6 Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
  • PMID: 38328887
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X24000049

Introduction: First responders' training and learning regarding how to handle a mass-casualty incident (MCI) is traditionally based on reading and/or training through computer-based scenarios, or sometimes through live simulations with actors. First responders should practice in realistic environments to narrow the theory-practice gap, and the possibility of repeating the training is important for learning. High-fidelity virtual reality (VR) is a promising tool to use for realistic and repeatable simulation training, but it needs to be further evaluated. The aim of this literature review was to provide a comprehensive description of the use of high-fidelity VR for MCI training by first responders.

Methods: A systematic integrative literature review was used according to Whittemore and Knafl's descriptions. Databases investigated were PubMed, CINAHL Complete, Academic Search Ultimate, Web of Science, and ERIC to find papers addressing the targeted outcome. The electronic search strategy identified 797 potential studies. Seventeen studies were deemed eligible for final inclusion.

Results: Training with VR enables repetition in a way not possible with live simulation, and the realism is similar, yet not as stressful. Virtual reality offers a cost-effective and safe learning environment. The usability of VR depends on the level of immersion, the technology being error-free, and the ease of use.

Conclusions: This integrative review shows that high-fidelity VR training should not rule out live simulation, but rather serve as a complement. First responders became more confident and prepared for real-life MCIs after training with high-fidelity VR, but efforts should be made to solve the technical issues found in this review to further improve the usability.

Keywords: Emergency Medical Services; disaster medicine; high-fidelity simulation; mass-casualty incident; review; simulation training; situated cognition theory; virtual reality.

Publication types

IMAGES

  1. 14+ Literature Review Examples

    a literature integrative review

  2. what is a integrative review

    a literature integrative review

  3. Stages of an integrative literature review

    a literature integrative review

  4. [PDF] Integrative Literature Reviews : Guidelines and Examples

    a literature integrative review

  5. What is a Literature Review?

    a literature integrative review

  6. Writing an Integrative Literature Review: Part 2 of 4

    a literature integrative review

VIDEO

  1. Literature Review

  2. Approaches to searching the literature

  3. What is Literature Review?

  4. Chapter 5 Review of Literature PART 02

  5. Effective Review of Literature

COMMENTS

  1. Strategies for completing a successful integrative review

    This article describes one type of literature review—an integrative review—and provides a framework and some guidelines for conducting an integrative review. TYPES OF LITERATURE REVIEWS

  2. Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples

    The integrative literature review is a distinctive form of research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. Little guidance is available on how to write an integrative literature review.

  3. Comparing Integrative and Systematic Literature Reviews

    More As Editor-in-Chief, oftentimes, I am asked to make a distinction between integrative and systematic literature reviews. To clarify how the two literature reviews differ, I am going to compare the two in this editorial. A literature review is a systematic way of collecting and synthesizing previous research ( Snyder, 2019 ).

  4. Conducting integrative reviews: a guide for novice nursing researchers

    Integrative reviews within healthcare promote a holistic understanding of the research topic. Structure and a comprehensive approach within reviews are important to ensure the reliability in their findings. Aim This paper aims to provide a framework for novice nursing researchers undertaking integrative reviews. Discussion

  5. A simple guide for completing an integrative review using an example

    The integrative review (IR) is a methodology of importance to nursing and other disciplines to evaluate and synthesize data from diverse sources to answer research questions, generate new theories, and to provide a comprehensive view of what is known regarding a topic of interest.

  6. Integrative Review

    An integrative review provides a broader summary of the literature and includes findings from a range of research designs. It gathers and synthesizes both empirical and theoretical evidence relevant to a clearly defined problem.

  7. Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Using the Past and Present to

    The article identifies the main components of the integrative literature review, provides examples of visual representations for use in literature reviews, and describes how to write literature reviews that are integrative, definitive, and provocative.

  8. A Step-by-Step Guide to Conducting an Integrative Review

    Defines the key features that distinguish the integrative review from other types of literature reviews. Guides the reader through the complete process of conducting the integrative review. Promotes valid and reliable integrative reviews that support evidence-base nursing practice. Offers clear, and practical step-by-step instructions

  9. Integrative Review

    An integrative review method is an approach that allows for the inclusion of diverse methodologies (i.e. experimental and non-experimental research) and have the potential to play a greater role in evidence-based practice for nursing ( Whittemore & Knafl, 2005 ). Characteristics: An integrative review is best designed for nursing research

  10. What are Integrative Reviews?

    An integrative review is a specific review method that summarises past empirical or theoretical literature to provide a greater comprehensive understanding of a particular phenomenon or healthcare problem (Broome 1993). Thus, integrative reviews have the potential to build upon nursing science, informing research, practice, and policy initiatives.

  11. Integrative review: what is it? How to do it?

    Introduction: The integrative review is the methodology that provides synthesis of knowledge and applicability of results of significant studies to practice. Objective: To present the phases of an integrative review and the relevant aspects to be taken into account when using this methodological resource.

  12. Literature Reviews: Systematic, Scoping, Integrative

    The Basic Process: Develop a research question. Search databases to see if a review has already been published on your topic. Select the type of review (systematic, scoping, integrative) Select databases. Select grey literature sources (if applicable). Read this article for helpful suggestions on systematically searching for grey literature.

  13. Integrate

    Sheridan Libraries Guides Write a Literature Review Integrate Take a step-by-step approach to writing a lit review. Find Organizing Your Review Your lit review should not be a summary and evaluation of each article, one after the other. Your sources must be integrated together to create a narrative on your topic.

  14. PDF Author Guidelines for Integrative Literature Reviews

    An integrative literature review is a form of empirical research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. It "reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated" [1, p. 356]. It "follow[s] certain procedures ...

  15. Literature, Systematic, and Integrative Reviews

    There are several kinds of reviews: plain literature reviews, systematic reviews, and integrative reviews are the most common. Chapter 5 of Introduction to Nursing Research: Incorporating Evidence-based Practice ( Cannon & Boswell, 2011, 2nd ed. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning) covers the purpose and process of a literature review in ...

  16. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines

    Most integrative literature reviews are intended to address mature topics or new, emerging topics. In the case of mature topics, the purpose of using an integrative review method is to overview the knowledge base, to critically review and potentially re-conceptualize, and to expand on the theoretical foundation of the specific topic as it develops.

  17. Strategies for completing a successful integrative review

    An integrative review, similar to other reviews, begins with a description of the problem and content of interest: the concepts, target population, and healthcare problem to be addressed in the review. For an integrative review, these variables indicate the need to examine a broad range of study types and literature. Literature search

  18. A simple guide for completing an integrative review using an example

    An integrative literature review approach is used to qualitatively evaluate different SOFC-MGT integration strategies and CCS to devise a suitable small-scale SOFC/MGT-CCS system. A promising layout of a hybrid system based on atmospheric pressure SOFC and MGT has been identified, which uses an inverted Brayton cycle to expand the SOFC outlet ...

  19. Systematic vs. Scoping vs. Integrative

    Systematic Review Scoping Review Integrative Review "Systematic reviews aim to identify, evaluate, and summarize the findings of all relevant individual studies over a health-related issue, thereby making the available evidence more accessible to decision makers" (Ganeshkumar & Gopalakrishnan, 2013). "A scoping review... is a form of knowledge synthesis that addresses an exploratory research ...

  20. An Overview of the Integrative Research Review

    The integrative literature review has many benefits to the scholarly reviewer, including evaluating the strength of the scientific evidence, identifying gaps in current research, identifying the need for future research, bridging between related areas of work, identifying central issues in an area, generating a research question, identifying a theoretical or conceptual framework, and exploring ...

  21. An integrative review of literature on determinants of nurses

    Materials and Methods: In this study, an integrative review of the literature was used. The search strategy began with six electronic databases (e.g. CINAHL and Medline). Considering the inclusion criteria, published studies that examined the factors influencing nurses' organizational commitment in the timeframe of 2000 through 2013 were chosen.

  22. Getting started

    What is a literature review? Definition: A literature review is a systematic examination and synthesis of existing scholarly research on a specific topic or subject. Purpose: It serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge within a particular field. Analysis: Involves critically evaluating and summarizing key findings, methodologies, and debates found in ...

  23. Literature review

    "A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap of the ...

  24. [2402.08565] Artificial Intelligence for Literature Reviews

    This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs). A SLR is a rigorous and organised methodology that assesses and integrates previous research on a given topic. Numerous tools have been developed to assist and partially automate the SLR process. The increasing role of AI in this field shows great potential in ...

  25. The integrative literature review as a research method: A demonstration

    An Integrative Literature Review (ILR) allows researchers to go beyond an analysis and synthesis of primary research findings and provides new insights and summarised knowledge about a specific topic. Although an ILR aims to follow similar approaches to that of a systematic review, it allows for the inclusion of both primary research studies, along with other documents (including opinions ...

  26. Using High-Fidelity Virtual Reality for Mass-Casualty Incident ...

    The aim of this literature review was to provide a comprehensive description of the use of high-fidelity VR for MCI training by first responders. Methods: A systematic integrative literature review was used according to Whittemore and Knafl's descriptions. Databases investigated were PubMed, CINAHL Complete, Academic Search Ultimate, Web of ...

  27. Comparing Integrative and Systematic Literature Reviews

    An integrative literature review reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative liter- " ature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated (Torraco, 2005, p. 356). By integrated, it means that it is best used "

  28. Full article: DIETERICH's disease of both the third and the fourth

    The review shows that of eighteen cases treated conservatively, ten healed successfully [Citation 6]. Literature confirms that the most common site of avascular necrosis is the third metacarpal head. Other articles, describe the lesion in other metacarpal heads as well [Citation 4]. The treatment can be often conservative with painkillers and ...